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Table 3 OR (95 % CI) for subjective hearing loss by fibromyalgia, socioeconomic conditions, measured hearing loss, depression and anxiety in women and mena

From: Are persons with fibromyalgia or other musculoskeletal pain more likely to report hearing loss? A HUNT study

  Subjective hearing loss Unadjusted Adjusted for age, education and hearing loss (model 1) In addition adjusted for anxiety and depression (model 2)
Yes No
N (%) N (%) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
WOMEN (13 135) 1 085 (8.26) 12 050 (91.74)    
Fibromyalgia      
 No 805 (6.79) 11 055 (93.21) 1.000 ref 1.000 ref 1.000 ref
 Yes 280 (21.96) 995 (78.04) 3.865 (3.324–4.493) 5.182 (4.278–6.277) 4.578 (3.622–5.787)
Age
 20–35 89 (2.09) 4 162 (97.91) 1.000 ref 1.000 ref 1.000 ref
 36–49 135 (3.36) 3 881 (96.64) 1.627 (1.240–2.133) 1.069 (0.801–1.426) 0.974 (0.713–1.329)
 50–64 279 (10.24) 2 445 (89.76) 5.336 (4.182–6.809) 2.072 (1.565–2.743) 1.952 (1.437–2.651)
 65+ 582 (27.15) 1 562 (72.85) 17.424 (13.837–21.942) 2.354 (1.747–3.172) 2.071 (1.474–2.909)
Education
 Primary school 659 (15.45) 3 606 (84.55) 1.000 ref 1.000 ref 1.000 ref
 High school 247 (4.49) 5 255 (95.51) 0.257 (0.221–0.299) 0.807 (0.665–0.980) 0.736 (0.588–0.921)
 Higher 179 (5.15) 3 189 (94.69) 0.307 (0.259–0.365) 0.811 (0.658–1.000) 0.799 (0.618–1.032)
WHO hearing impairment
 None (<26 dB) 377 (3.31) 11 007 (96.69) 1.000 ref 1.000 ref 1.000 ref
 Mild (26–40 dB) 325 (28.33) 822 (71.67) 11.544 (9.793–13.606) 7.859 (6.404–9.644) 8.082 (6.340–10.302)
 Moderate (41–60 dB) 291 (59.75) 196 (40.25) 43.348 (35.201–53.380) 31.533 (24.444–40.678) 35.904 (26.424–48.786)
 Severe (>60 dB) 92 (78.63) 25 (21.37) 107.442 (68.247–169.148) 81.067 (50.190–130.939) 90.053 (49.378–164.234)
HADS–A ≥8b
 No 606 (6.11) 9 312 (93.89) 1.000 ref   1.000 ref
 Yes 178 (11.83) 1 327 (88.17) 2.061 (1.727–2.460)   1.732 (1.353–2.217)
HADS-D ≥8b
 No 786 (6.91) 10 590 (93.09) 1.000 ref   1.000 ref
 Yes 155 (17.44) 734 (82.56) 2.845 (2.358–3.433)   1.131 (0.849–1.508)
Nagelkerke R2     0.389 0.375
−2 Log likelihood     5 056.265 3 744.466
MEN (12 551) 1 404 (11.19) 11 147 (88.81)    
Fibromyalgia
 No 1 335 (10.82) 11 008 (89.18) 1.000 ref 1.000 ref 1.000 ref
 Yes 69 (33.17) 139 (66.83) 4.093 (3.050–5.493) 4.368 (3.082–6.189) 4.523 (3.077–6.647)
Age
 20–35 150 (3.93) 3 666 (96.07) 1.000 ref 1.000 ref 1.000 ref
 36–49 173 (4.54) 3 638 (95.46) 1.162 (0.930–1.453) 1.007 (0.800–1.268) 0.966 (0.757–1.233)
 50–64 332 (12.40) 2 346 (87.60) 3.459 (2.833–4.223) 1.692 (1.351–2.119) 1.609 (1.262–2.050)
 65+ 749 (33.35) 1 497 (66.65) 12.228 (10.159–14.718) 2.116 (1.661–2.695) 1.837 (1.404–2.403)
Education
 Primary school 611 (19.72) 2 487 (80.28) 1.000 ref 1.000 ref 1.000 ref
 High school 505 (8.22) 5 636 (91.78) 0.365 (0.321–0.414) 0.914 (0.783–1.066) 0.886 (0.757–1.233)
 Higher 288 (8.70) 3 024 (91.30) 0.388 (0.334–0.450) 0.824 (0.691–0.981) 0.765 (0.622–0.940)
WHO hearing impairment
 None (<26 dB) 438 (4.36) 9 618 (95.64) 1.000 ref 1.000 ref 1.000 ref
 Mild (26–40 dB) 439 (28.16) 1 120 (71.84) 8.607 (7.437–9.961) 5.625 (4.713–6.715) 6.157 (5.054–7.500)
 Moderate (41–60 dB) 410 (53.39) 358 (46.61) 25.148 (21.194–29.841) 15.120 (12.203–18.734) 17.012 (13.214–21.902)
 Severe (>60 dB) 117 (69.64) 51 (30.36) 50.376 (35.766–70.955) 31.310 (21.721–45.133) 29.566 (19.085–45.802)
HADS-A ≥8b
 No 949 (9.20) 9 368 (90.80) 1.000 ref   1.000 ref
 Yes 128 (13.43) 825 (86.57) 1.532 (1.257–1.867)   1.583 (1.225–2.044)
HADS-D ≥8b
 No 1 040 (9.49) 9 915 (90.51) 1.000 ref   1.000 ref
 Yes 183 (21.79) 657 (78.21) 2.655 (2.227–3.166)   1.429 (1.118–1.826)
Nagelkerke R2     0.319 0.296
−2 Log likelihood     6 593.252 5 200.042
  1. HADS-A = self-reported questionnaire for symptoms of anxiety in which a score of ≥8 is consistent with clinically relevant symptoms of anxiety
  2. HADS-D = self-reported questionnaire for symptoms of depression in which a score of ≥8 is consistent with clinically relevant symptoms of depression
  3. aN in this analysis ranges from 13 135 to 11 113 and 12 551 to 10 961 for respectively women and men
  4. bMissing data from several participants on this variable