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Table 2 Primary and secondary outcome measures of pain and function at baseline and 12 week follow-up. Values are means (standard deviations) unless otherwise stated

From: Flip-flop footwear with a moulded foot-bed for the treatment of foot pain: a randomised controlled trial

Measure Intervention Group Control group Adjusted mean difference (95 % CI) P Value Effect size (Cohen’s d)
Baseline Follow-up Baseline Follow-up
Primary Outcome
 FHSQ Painb 52.6 (15.7) 61.5 (16.4) 51.1 (16.7) 50.7 (17.6) 9.6 (5.5 to 13.3) <0.01 0.64
Secondary Outcomes
 Pain VAS (mm)c 55.7 (17.9) 45.4 (19.6) 52.7 (18.3) 51.8 (20.5) −9.4a (5.6 to 13.2) <0.01 0.33
 FHSQ Functionb 60.7 (20.4) 68.1 (19.4) 60.0 (20.2) 59.1 (21.4) 8.4a (4.8 to 11.7) <0.01 0.44
 FHSQ General Foot Healthb 26.5 (27.9) 36.7 (30.7) 23.8 (27.0) 25.1 (27.0) 8.9a (0.6 to 13.3) <0.01 0.41
  1. ameets minimal important difference level for a clinically meaningful difference
  2. bFHSQ_Foot Health Status Questionnaire (0 = “worst foot health,” 100 = “best foot health”)
  3. cVAS_Visual Analog Scale (0 to 100 - higher values indicate greater levels of pain)