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Table 3 Correlations between depression, pain, and work impairment among CLBP patients

From: The impact of depression among chronic low back pain patients in Japan

  Spearman’s rho with PHQ-9 scorea P value
Frequency of problems with pain 0.236 <0.001
Current severity of pain (based on NRS score) 0.289 <0.001
Severity of pain in the prior week (based on NRS score) 0.332 <0.001
Additional pain sites (number, 0–6) 0.387 <0.001
Presenteeism % 0.340 <0.001
Overall work impairment % 0.342 <0.001
  1. aCorrelation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)
  2. CLBP chronic low back pain, NRS numeric rating scale, PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire