Skip to main content

Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Table 1 Characteristics of CLBP patients according to presence of depression

From: The impact of depression among chronic low back pain patients in Japan

  Total (N = 425) Depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 10)
(N = 70)
No Depression (PHQ-9 < 10)
(N = 355)
P value
Age, Mean ± SD 53.90 ± 14.16 45.91 ± 13.73 55.48 ± 13.73 <0.001
 Female, n (%) 187 (44.00) 33 (47.14) 154 (43.38) 0.562
Employment status, n (%)     0.589
 Not currently employed 164 (38.59) 25 (35.71) 139 (39.15)  
 Employed 261 (61.41) 45 (64.29) 216 (60.85)  
Annual household income, n (%)     0.079
  < ¥3million 83 (19.53) 22 (31.43) 61 (17.18)  
 ¥3million to < ¥5million 100 (23.53) 15 (21.43) 85 (23.94)  
 ¥5million to < ¥8million 113 (26.59) 15 (21.43) 98 (27.61)  
 ¥8million or more 97 (22.82) 12 (17.14) 85 (23.94)  
 Decline to answer 32 (7.53) 6 (8.57) 26 (7.32)  
Marital status, n (%)     0.021
 Single/Divorced/Separated/Widowed 138 (32.47) 31 (44.29) 107 (30.14)  
 Married/living with partner 287 (67.53) 39 (55.71) 248 (69.86)  
Education level, n (%)     0.063
 Less than university education 218 (51.29) 43 (61.43) 175 (49.30)  
 University education or higher 207 (48.71) 27 (38.57) 180 (50.70)  
Body mass index category, n (%)     0.137
 Underweight 52 (12.24) 9 (12.86) 43 (12.11)  
 Normal weight 280 (65.88) 39 (55.71) 241 (67.89)  
 Overweight 70 (16.47) 16 (22.86) 54 (15.21)  
 Obese 19 (4.47 %) 4 (5.71) 15 (4.23)  
 Decline to provide weight 4 (0.94 %) 2 (2.86) 2 (0.56)  
Smoking behavior, n (%)     0.088
 Never smoked 182 (42.82) 34 (48.57) 148 (41.69)  
 Former smoker 132 (31.06) 14 (20.00) 118 (33.24)  
 Current smoker 111 (26.12) 22 (31.43) 89 (25.07)  
Alcohol use, n (%)     0.975
 Do not drink 116 (27.29) 19 (27.14) 97 (27.32)  
 Drink alcohol 309 (72.71) 51 (72.86) 258 (72.68)  
Vigorous exercise at least one day in the past month, n (%)     0.198
 Do not exercise 213 (50.12) 40 (57.14) 173 (48.73)  
 Exercise 212 (49.88) 30 (42.86) 182 (51.27)  
Charlson comorbidity index, Mean ± SD 0.51 ± 2.23 0.83 ± 3.64 0.44 ± 1.83 0.186
Sleep difficulties, n (%) 82 (19.29) 35 (50.00) 47 (13.24) <0.001
Severity of LBP, n (%)     <0.001
 Mild 186 (47.45) 19 (29.23) 167 (51.07)  
 Moderate 172 (43.88) 34 (52.31) 138 (42.20)  
 Severe 34 (8.67) 12 (18.46) 22 (6.73)  
 Missing 33 5 28  
Severity of pain in the prior week (0–10), Mean ± SD 4.48 ± 2.31 5.80 ± 2.26 4.23 ± 2.23 <0.001
Current severity of pain (0–10), Mean ± SD 4.59 ± 2.28 5.86 ± 2.27 4.34 ± 2.20 <0.001
Frequency of problems with pain, n (%)     0.002
 Daily 188 (44.24) 44 (62.86) 144 (40.56)  
 4–6 times a week 63 (14.82) 12 (17.14) 51 (14.37)  
 2–3 times a week 82 (19.29) 10 (14.29) 72 (20.28)  
 Once a week 39 (9.18) 3 (4.29) 36 (10.14)  
 2–3 times a month 35 (8.24) 0 (0.00) 35 (9.86)  
 Once a month or less often 18 (4.24) 1 (1.43) 17 (4.79)  
Type of diagnosing doctor for LBP, n (%)     0.028
 General internist 18 (4.24) 4 (5.71) 14 (3.94)  
 Gynecologist 5 (1.18) 0 (0.00) 5 (1.41)  
 Orthopedist 353 (83.06) 54 (77.14) 299 (84.23)  
 Rheumatologist 4 (0.94) 3 (4.29) 1 (0.28)  
 Pain management specialist 3 (0.71) 1 (1.43) 2 (0.56)  
 Other 42 (9.88) 8 (11.43) 34 (9.58)  
Type of prescribing doctor, n (%)     0.150
 General internist 28 (16.87) 6 (15.38) 22 (17.32)  
 Gynecologist 2 (1.20) 0 (0.00) 2 (1.57)  
 Orthopedist 116 (69.88) 24 (61.54) 92 (72.44)  
 Rheumatologist 5 (3.01) 3 (7.69) 2 (1.57)  
 Pain management specialist 1 (0.60) 0 (0.00) 1 (0.79)  
 Other 14 (8.43) 6 (15.38) 8 (6.30)  
 Missing 259 31 228  
Duration of LBP (months), Mean ± SD 112 ± 120 96 ± 99 115 ± 123 0.227
Current use of a prescription medication for pain, n (%)     0.002
 No 259 (60.94) 31 (44.29) 228 (64.23)  
 Yes 166 (39.06) 39 (55.71) 127 (35.77)  
Current use of NSAIDs prescription for pain, n (%)     0.049
 No 40 (24.10) 14 (35.90) 26 (20.47)  
 Yes 126 (75.90) 25 (64.10) 101 (79.53)  
 Missing 259 31 228  
Use of an OTC product for pain, n (%)     0.861
 No 306 (72.00) 51 (72.86) 255 (71.83)  
 Yes 119 (28.00) 19 (27.14) 100 (28.17)  
Use of an herbal product for pain, n (%)     0.441
 No 413 (97.18) 69 (98.57) 344 (96.90)  
 Yes 12 (2.82) 1 (1.43) 11 (3.10)  
  1. aNSAIDS are prescription drugs in Japan. CLBP chronic low back pain, LBP low back pain, NSAIDs non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, OTC over-the-counter, PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionaire-9