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Table 3 Sex/Gender differences in the independent rotator cuff surgical group

From: Sex and gender disparity in pathology, disability, referral pattern, and wait time for surgery in workers with shoulder injury

Variables (Mean, SD)/(N/%) Women (%) Men (%) Statistics P values
Age 51 (10) 52 (8) ttest = 0.43, p = 0.66
Referral pattern (N,%) 44 (29 %) 106 (71 %) χ2 = 25.63, p < 0.0001 Phi coefficient = 0.41, 95 % CI = 0.31–0.51 Effect size = Medium
Wait time
Wait time1 wait time2 20 (13) 95 (50) 14 (12) 77 (41) Wilcoxon test = 2.61, p = 0.01 Wilcoxon test = 2.08, p = 0.04
Affected Side    
 • Right  • Left  • Bilateral 27 (61 %) 14 (32 %) 3 (7 %) 51 (48 %) 44 (42 %) 11 (10 %) FET = 0.01, p = 0.36
Side operated on
 • Right  • Left 57 (73 %) 21 (27 %) 48 (59 %) 34 (41 %) χ2 = 1.36, p = 0.24
Mechanism of injury
 • Insidious  • Repetitive activities  • Fall  • Traumatic  • Other 4 (9 %) 10 (23 %) 11 (25 %) 16 (36 %) 4 (4 %) 13 (12 %) 41 (39 %) 37 (35 %) FET = 0.13, p = 0.23 χ2: 2.62, p = 0.11 χ2: 2.57, p = 0.11 χ2 = 0.03:, p = 0.86
Pre-surgical medication use
 • Non-narcotic analgesics  • Anti-inflammatory  • Narcotics 18 (41 %) 16 (36 %) 5 (11 %) 25 (24 %) 17 (16 %) 9 (8 %) χ2 = 4.56, p = 0.03 χ2 = 7.49, p = 0.01 FET = 0.30, p = 0.58
Type of surgery
 • RC repairs  • Resection of clavicle  • Acromioplasty  • Biceps tenodesis  • Biceps tenotomy  • Debridement 19 (43 %) 9 (20 %) 41 (93 %) 2 (5 %) 3 (7 %) 13 (30 %) 52 (49 %) 24 (23 %) 96 (91 %) 8 (8 %) 13 (12 %) 40 (38 %) χ2 = 0.83, p = 0.36 χ2 = 0.09, p = 0.77 χ2 = 0.27, p = 0.60 FET = 0.24, p = 0.72 FET = 0.15, p = 0.40 χ2 = 0.91, p = 0.34
Tear size (in cuff repair group)
 • Small  • Moderate  • Large  • Massive 4 (21 %) 11 (58 %) 3 (16 %) 1 (5 %) 6 (12 %) 23 (44 %) 14 (27 %) 9 (17 %) FET = 0.02, p = 0.049
  1. FET Fisher's Exact Test
  2. χ2 = Chi square
  3. Wait time1: Symptom duration (months)
  4. Wait time2: Consent date to surgical date (days)