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Table 2 Lordosis and ROM scores, and consistency between tests (degrees)

From: How consistent are lordosis, range of movement and lumbo-pelvic rhythm in people with and without back pain?

Movement Region Back pain status ROMa Inter-rater agreement (same-day, different raters)
Test 1 versus Test 2
Intra-rater agreement (different-days, same rater)
Test 1 versus Test 3
Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Average for all 3 Tests Mean & SD of differences between Test 1 & Test 2b Minimal detectable change score Mean & SD of differences between Test 1 & Test 3b Minimal detectable change score
Lordosisc Lumbar lordosis NoLBP −29.6 ± 11.2 −31.2 ± 11.3 −29.4 ± 10.8 −30.1 ± 11.1 1.5 ± 6.9 ±11.3 −0.5 ± 9.1 ±15.0
LBP −27.1 ± 11.6 −28.1 ± 10.5 −28.2 ± 11.8 −27.8 ± 11.2 1.0 ± 5.4 ±8.8 0.2 ± 9.0 ±14.8
Trunk angle NoLBP −9.9 ± 5.7 −10.5 ± 5.1 −11.0 ± 4.2 −10.4 ± 5.0 0.6 ± 4.2 ±6.9 1.2 ± 4.7 ±7.7
LBP −9.5 ± 5.5 −9.4 ± 4.0 −9.9 ± 4.5 −9.6 ± 4.7 0.0 ± 3.7 ±6.1 0.3 ± 3.4 ±5.6
Pelvic angle NoLBP 19.7 ± 10.0 20.7 ± 9.6 18.4 ± 9.6 19.6 ± 9.7 −1.0 ± 5.5 ±9.0 1.7 ± 7.2 ±11.9
LBP 17.6 ± 9.3 18.7 ± 10.8 18.4 ± 10.4 18.2 ± 10.1 −1.1 ± 5.8 ±9.6 0.0 ± 7.9 ±13.0
Flexionc Trunk (T12) angle NoLBP 104.9 ± 15.4 106.4 ± 15.5 105.8 ± 15.7 105.7 ± 15.4 −1.5 ± 4.1 ±6.8 −0.4 ± 5.7 ±9.3
LBP 110.4 ± 14.3 110.2 ± 13.2 109.6 ± 13.1 110.1 ± 13.4 0.2 ± 5.3 ±8.7 −0.4 ± 6.2 ±10.2
Lumbar range NoLBP 51.2 ± 8.1 54.1 ± 8.9 50.9 ± 10.1 52.1 ± 9.1 −2.9 ± 6.6 ±10.8 −0.4 ± 7.9 ±13.0
LBP 49.9 ± 11.6 50.1 ± 11.4 50.5 ± 11.5 50.2 ± 11.3 −0.2 ± 5.0 ±8.4 −0.2 ± 8.4 ±14.0
Pelvic (S2) angle NoLBP 54.9 ± 15.3 53.7 ± 14.6 55.8 ± 15.5 54.8 ± 15.0d 1.2 ± 5.0 ±8.2 0.2 ± 6.6 ±10.9
LBP 61.0 ± 12.4 60.0 ± 14.4 61.2 ± 12.4 60.8 ± 13.2d 0.4 ± 7.1 ±11.8 −1.0 ± 9.9 ±16.6
Extensionc Trunk angle NoLBP 32.3 ± 8.9 32.3 ± 9.5 31.7 ± 7.3 32.1 ± 8.6 0.0 ± 6.1 ±10 −0.6 ± 6.0 ±9.9
LBP 27.1 ± 7.0 26.2 ± 7.6 27.4 ± 6.2 26.9 ± 7.0 −0.9 ± 3.9 ±6.3 1.0 ± 4.4 ±7.2
Lumbar range NoLBP 22.8 ± 13.9 22.3 ± 12.2 21.2 ± 12.4 22.1 ± 12.8 −0.5 ± 7.6 ±12.5 −2.2 ± 11.3 ±18.6
LBP 15.1 ± 8.5 15.2 ± 10.6 15.6 ± 7.2 15.2 ± 8.9 0.1 ± 5.5 ±9.0 1.4 ± 3.8 ±6.2
Pelvic angle NoLBP 11.3 ± 8.5 11.5 ± 8.2 12.7 ± 9.3 11.8 ± 8.6 0.2 ± 5.9 ±9.7 1.8 ± 8.4 ±13.8
LBP 12.3 ± 8.4 11.3 ± 9.7 12.0 ± 7.8 11.9 ± 8.7 −1.1 ± 6.2 ±10.1 −0.3 ± 4.6 ±7.6
Left lateral flexionc Trunk angle NoLBP 31.2 ± 6.6 30.7 ± 6.0 29.9 ± 5.4 −30.6 ± 6 −0.5 ± 4.1 ±6.9 −0.8 ± 4.9 ±8.1
LBP 29.8 ± 6.0 31.1 ± 6.5 28.5 ± 6.1 −29.9 ± 6.2 1.3 ± 3.9 ±6.5 −0.7 ± 3.4 ±5.7
Lumbar range NoLBP 24.1 ± 4.7 23.9 ± 4.3 23.3 ± 4.6 −23.8 ± 4.5 −0.2 ± 3.3 ±5.5 −0.2 ± 3.9 ±6.6
LBP 24.3 ± 5.3 24.6 ± 5.9 23.1 ± 5.9 −24.1 ± 5.7 0.3 ± 3.5 ±5.8 −1.1 ± 3.2 ±5.3
Pelvic angle NoLBP 7.3 ± 4.1 7.1 ± 3.8 6.9 ± 3.6 −7.4 ± 3.8 −0.2 ± 2.5 ±4.2 −0.5 ± 2.7 ±4.5
LBP 5.7 ± 2.8 6.8 ± 3.7 5.5 ± 3.5 −6.0 ± 3.4 1.1 ± 2.6 ±4.3 0.3 ± 2.4 ±4.1
Right lateral flexionc Trunk angle NoLBP 31.9 ± 6.0 32.4 ± 6.5 31.6 ± 6.5 32 ± 6.2 −0.5 ± 2.9 ±4.9 −0.2 ± 2.7 ±4.5
LBP 29.5 ± 5.1 29.8 ± 5.1 26.5 ± 5.7 28.8 ± 5.4 −0.3 ± 4.0 ±6.6 −2.6 ± 3.5 ±5.8
Lumbar range NoLBP 24.4 ± 4.6 24.9 ± 4.5 24.7 ± 4.6 24.7 ± 4.5 −0.5 ± 2.4 ±4.0 −0.7 ± 3.1 ±5.2
LBP 23.2 ± 5.2 22.8 ± 4.6 21.3 ± 5.7 22.3 ± 5.6 0.4 ± 3.0 ±5.1 1.9 ± 2.6 ±4.3
Pelvic angle NoLBP 7.7 ± 3.9 7.7 ± 4.0 7.1 ± 3.8 7.5 ± 3.9 0.0 ± 2.5 ±4.1 0.6 ± 2.7 ±4.5
LBP 6.4 ± 2.9 7.1 ± 3.3 5.4 ± 3.3 6.4 ± 3.2 −0.7 ± 3.1 ±5.1 0.7 ± 2.8 ±4.8
  1. Legend: LBP LBP group, NoLBP no LBP group, ROM ROM
  2. aROM and standard deviation data represent the group mean and standard deviation (SD). The standard deviation indicates the magnitude of differences between individuals within the group
  3. bThese data are derived from the difference in ROM between tests for each individual, (i.e., Test 1 versus 2, Test 1 versus 3) then calculating group mean and SD of the difference scores
  4. cSee Table 4 for numbers (n) of participants in each group
  5. dIndicates significant difference between groups