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Table 1 Current literature using HR-pQCT finite element (FE) modeling for uniaxial compression simulations in the older human bone; illustrating the type of FE model used, the elastic modulus (E) used in the model, the reported outcomes, and the sites measured per study. Literature is listed in chronological order by year

From: In vivo precision of three HR-pQCT-derived finite element models of the distal radius and tibia in postmenopausal women

Reference FE Modela Elastic modulus (E) Outcomes reported Site measured
Pistoia et al. Bone 2002; 30(6): 842–848. STM 10 GPa 1. Failure Load (N) Cadaver Radius
MacNeil et al. Med Eng and Phys 2007; 29: 1096–1105. STM 10 GPa 1. Reaction Load (N)
2. Strain Energy Density
3. Average von Mises Stress (MPa)
Cadaver Radius (Cube Sample)
MacNeil et al. Med Eng and Phys 2008; 30: 792–799.b STM Calculatedc 1. Elastic Modulus (CV%RMS)b
2. Reaction Force (CV%RMS)b
3. Average von Mises Stress (CV%RMS)b
4. Strain Energy Density (CV%RMS)b
In vivo
Radius and Tibia
MacNeil et al. Bone 2008; 42: 1203–1213. STM
E-BMD
6829 MPa
Eelement = 15004 × (ρ/1200 mg HA/cm3)1.7
1. Apparent Bone Strength (Ultimate Stress) (GPa) In vivo
Radius
Boutroy et al. JBMR 2008; 23(3): 392–399. DTM Cortical: 20 GPa
Trabecular: 17.5 GPa
1. Stiffness (kN/mm)
2. % Load Carried by Each Tissued
3. Average von Mises Stress for each Tissued (MPa)
In vivo
Radius and Tibia
Mueller et al. Bone 2009; 44: 364–371. STM 10 GPa 1. Strength (N)
2. Stiffness (N/mm)
Cadaver Radius
Dalzell et al. Osteoporos Int 2009; 20: 1683–1694. STM 10 GPa 1. Stiffness (N/mm)
2. Failure Load (N)
In vivo
Radius and Tibia
Varga et al. J Biomech 2009; 42: 1726–1731. DTM Cortical: 16.5 GPa
Trabecular: 2974.0 MPa
1. Failure Load (N)
2. Stiffness (N/mm)
Cadaver Radius
Burghardt et al. JBMR 2010; 25(12): 2558–2571. DTM Cortical: 10 GPa
Trabecular: 10 GPa
1. Stiffness (N/mm)
2. Apparent Modulus (N/mm2)
3. Failure Load (N)
4. % Load Carried by Cortex
In vivo
Radius and Tibia
Vilayphiou et al. Bone 2010; 46: 1030–1037. DTM Cortical: 20 GPa
Trabecular: 17 GPa
1. Failure Load (N)
2. Stiffness (kN/mm)
3. % Load Carried by Each Tissued
4. Average von Mises stress for each Tissued (MPa)
In vivo
Radius and Tibia
Varga et al. Bone. 2010; 47: 982–988. STM 15 GPa 1. Stiffness (kN.mm)
2. Failure Load (kN)
Cadaver Radius
Vilayphiou et al. JBMR 2011; 26(5): 965–973. DTM Cortical: 20 GPa
Trabecular: 17 GPa
1. Failure Load (N)
2. Stiffness (kN/mm)
3. % Load Carried by Each Tissued
4. Average von Mises stress for each Tissued (MPa)
In vivo
Radius and Tibia
Macdonald et al. JBMR 2011; 26(1): 50–62. STM 6829 MPa 1. Stiffness (N/mm)
2. Apparent Bone Strength (Ultimate Stress) (MPa)
3. Failure Load (N)
4. % Strain Energy Carried by each Tissued
In vivo
Radius and Tibia
Varga et al. Biomech Model Mecahnobiol 2011; 10: 431–444. DTM Cortical: 15 GPa
Trabecular: 15 GPa
1. Stiffness (kN/mm)
2. Failure Load (kN)
3. Apparent Modulus (kN/mm2)
4. % Load Carried by each Tissued
Cadaver
Radius
Rizzoli et al. Osteoporos Int 2012; 23: 305–315. DTM
E-BMD
Cortical: 20 GPa
Trabecular: 17 GPa
Eelement = 15004 × (ρ/900 mg HA/cm3)1.1
1. Failure Load (N)
2. Stiffness (kN/mm)
3. Average von Mises stress for each Tissued (MPa)
In vivo
Radius and Tibia
Nishiyama et al. Osteoprosis Int 2012; 24(5): 1733–1740 STM 6829 MPa 1. Apparent Bone Strength (Ultimate Stress) (MPa)
2. % Load Carried by each Tissued
In vivo
Radius and Tibia
Ellouz et al. Bone 2014; 63: 147–157 DTM Cortical: 20 GPa
Trabecular: 17 GPa
1. Stiffness (kN/mm)
2. Average von Mises stress (MPa) for Each Tissued
3. % Load Carried by each Tissued
In vivo
Radius and Tibia
  1. a STM single tissue model, DTM dual tissue model, E-BMD scaled model based on bone mineral density
  2. bResults of this study only report long-term and short-term precision errors (CV%), outcome values not reported
  3. cElastic modulus (E) was calculated in this study based on the reaction force required to induce 1 % strain over the average area of the slices within the section
  4. d“Each tissue” refers separately to the cortical and trabecular tissues