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Table 2 Adverse ergonomic factors of LBP among OMPWF with univariate analysis

From: Prevalence and its risk factors for low back pain among operation and maintenance personnel in wind farms

Adverse ergonomic risk factors Low back pain
Number of workers Case OR (95 % CI)
Awkward posture     
Working with the hand(s) above the head, or the elbows above the shoulders, more than 4 h total per day     
 No 6 4 1  
 Yes 145 130 4.33 (0.73–25.68)
Repeatedly raising the hand(s) above the head, or the elbow(s) above the shouder(s) more than once per minute, more than 4 h total per day     
 No 12 10 1  
 Yes 139 124 1.65 (0.33–8.27)
Working with the neck bent more than 45° (without support or the ability to vary posture), more than 4 h total per day     
 No 14 11 1  
 Yes 137 123 2.40 (0.60–9.63)
Working with the back bent forward more than 30° (without support or the ability to vary posture), more than 4 h total per day     
 No 10 8 1  
 Yes 141 126 2.10 (0.41–10.82)
Working with the back bent forward more than 45° (without support or the ability to vary posture), more than 2 h total per day 21 17 1  
 No 130 117 2.12 (0.620–7.25)
 Yes     
Squatting more than 4 h total per day     
 No 4 2 1  
 Yes 147 132 8.80 (1.15–67.10)*
Kneeling more than 4 h total per day     
 No 32 27 1  
 Yes 119 107 1.65 (0.54–5.09)
High hand force     
Pinching an unsupported object(s) weighing 2 lbs or more per hand, or pinching with a force of 4 lbs or more per hand, meanwhile highly repetitive motion more than 3 h total per day     
 No 22 10 1  
 Yes 129 114 0.76 (0.16–3.58)
Pinching an unsupported object(s) weighing 2 lbs or more per hand, or pinching with a force of 4 lbs or more per hand, meanwhile hand/wrist in awkward posture more than 3 h total per day     
 No 28 23 1  
 Yes 123 111 2.01 (0.65–6.26)
Pinching an unsupported object(s) weighing 2 lbs or more per hand, or pinching with a force of 4 lbs or more per hand, meanwhile no other risk factors more than 4 h total per day     
 No 22 18 1  
 Yes 129 116 1.98 (0.58–6.76)
Gripping an unsupported object(s) weighing 10lbs or more per hand, or gripping with a force of 10 lbs or more per hand, meanwhile highly repetitive motion more than 3 h total per day     
 No 15 12 1  
 Yes 136 122 2.179 (0.55–8.67)
Gripping an unsupported object(s) weighing 10lbs or more per hand, or gripping with a force of 10 lbs or more per hand, meanwhile hand/wrist in awkward posture more than 3 h total per day     
 No 27 23 1  
 Yes 124 111 1.49 (0.44–4.97)
Gripping an unsupported object(s) weighing 10lbs or more per hand, or gripping with a force of 10 lbs or more per hand, meanwhile no other risk factors more than 4 h total per day     
 No 10 10 1  
 Yes 141 124 1.14 (1.07–1.21)*
Highly repetitive motion     
Using the same motion with little or no variation every few seconds, and high, forceful exertions with the hand(s) more than 2 h total per day     
 No 28 25 1  
 Yes 123 109 0.93 (0.25–3.50)
Using the same motion with little or no variation every few seconds, meanwhile no other risk factors more than 6 h total per day     
 No 32 29 1  
 Yes 119 105 0.78 (0.21–2.88)
Intensive keying and hand / wrist in awkward posture more than 4 h total per day     
 No 26 24 1  
 Yes 125 110 0.61 (0.13–2.85)
Intensive keying and no other risk factors more than 7 h total per day     
 No 31 29 1  
 Yes 120 105 0.44 (0.10–2.23)
Repeated impact     
Using the hand (heel/base of palm) as a hammer more than once per minute, more than 2 h total per day     
 No 41 34 1  
 Yes 110 100 2.06 (0.73–5.83)
Using the knee as a hammer more than once per minute, or more than 2 h total per day     
 No 55 45 1  
 Yes 96 89 2.83 (1.01–7.92)*
Heavy, Frequent or Awkward Lifting     
Lifting object weighing more than 75 lb and more than 10 times per day     
 No 115 104 1  
 Yes 36 30 0.53 (0.18–1.55)
Lifting object weighing more than 55 lb and more than 10 times per day     
 No 13 11 1  
 Yes 138 123 1.49 (0.30–7.38)
Lifting objects weighing more than 10 lb if done more than twice per minute, or more than 2 h total per day     
 No 28 21 1  
 Yes 123 113 3.77 (1.29–11.01)*
Lifting objects weighing more than 25 lb above the shoulders, below the knees or at arms length more than 25 times per day     
 No 27 23 1  
 Yes 124 111 1.49 (0.44–4.97)
Moderate to high hand-arm vibration     
Using impact wrenches, carpet strippers, chain saws, percussive tools (jack hammers, scalers, riveting or chipping hammers) or other tools that typically have high vibration levels, more than 30 min total per day     
 No 52 44 1  
 Yes 99 90 1.82 (0.66–5.03)
Using grinders, sanders, jigsaws or other hand tools that typically have moderate vibration levels more than 2 h total per day     
 No 46 41   1
 Yes 105 93 0.95 (0.31–2.86)
  1. LBP low back pain, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. *Significant at p < 0.05