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Table 3 Summary of behavior change techniques (BCTs) that were used in the 12 consultations, organized in specific groups and codes according to the BCT taxonomy (v.1) (Michie 2013)

From: Physical therapists’ assessments, analyses and use of behavior change techniques in initial consultations on musculoskeletal pain: direct observations in primary health care

Used BCT’s Frequency of BCTs (=n) Examples
1. Goals and planning   
1.1 Goal setting (behavior) 1 The PT guided the patient in setting a goal for regular walking or bicycling in order to improve overall health.
1.3 Goal setting (outcome) 1 The PT guided the patient in setting a goal in terms of weight loss.
2. Feedback and monitoring   
2.2 Feedback on behavior 2 The PT made suggestions to the patient, who had performed her aqua exercise at too high intensity.
4. Shaping knowledge   
4.1 Instruction on how to perform the behavior 9 The PT instructed the patient in a home-based exercise program.
5. Natural consequences   
5.1 Information about health consequences 12 The PT informed the patient about the positive consequences of muscle strength exercise in osteoarthritis.
7. Associations   
7.1 Prompts/cues 1 The PT discussed with the patient how to use a daily activity as a reminder of the home-exercises she was to perform
8. Repetition and substitution   
8.1 Behavioral practice/rehearsal 1 The PT asked the patient to repeat and demonstrate the exercises she had been instructed to do in order to remember them better.