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Table 2 Description of the physical tests performed at baseline and 6 month follow-up

From: Study protocol for Norwegian Psychomotor Physiotherapy versus Cognitive Patient Education in combination with active individualized physiotherapy in patients with long-lasting musculoskeletal pain – a randomized controlled trial

Physical tests Content Scores
aGlobal Body Examination – Flexibility (GBE) (Kvåle et al. 2012 [43]) Six tests: truncal flexibility and ability to relax during passive movements: Elbow-drop flexibility, lumbar-sacral flexibility, head rotation resistance and resistance to hip circumduction, hip-knee flexion and arm/shoulder flexion Each test: 0–7. Total score for Flexibility: 0–42, higher score indicating reduced flexibility. Healthy (n = 34): Median = 5.5, mean = 7.2.
aACR-tender points (Wolfe et al. 1990 [53]) 18 defined fibromyalgia tender points with four kilos pressure are tested. Painful points are counted
Back Performance Scale (BPS) (Magnussen et al. 2004 [45]; Myklebust et al. 2007 [46]) Five tests reflecting mobility-related activities for trunk and lower extremities (sock-test, pick-up test, roll-up test, fingertip-to-floor and a lift test where a box weighing 4 kg (women) or 5 kg (men) is lifted from floor to waist for 1 min). Each test: 0–3. Total score: 0–15 with higher scores indicating worse function. Normative data for people without back pain (n = 150): Median = 0, mean = 0.8.
High lift test The high lift test is a modified lift test included in BPS. The participants lift a box of 2 kg (for women) or 3 kg (for men) from waist to shoulder height and back again. Number of lifts performed in 1 min, are counted.
Biering–Sørensen test (Biering-Sorensen 1984; [47] Keller et al. 2001 [49]) Static endurance of the back. Participants are positioned prone with the upper body extending beyond the edge of the plinth and the lower body is fixed to the bench with three straps. Seconds keeping the upper body straight are recorded. Max time 240 s. Healthy (n = 31): Median = 138 s
Abdominal endurance/strength (Oja et al. 1995 [51]) Three levels of dynamic sit-up test with increased demand for each level. The participants are supine with the knees flexed and with feet supported on the plinth by the tester. Completed repetitions are counted (0–15).
  1. aMarked tests are used in the inclusion criteria