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Table 2 Summary of 22 children who demonstrated femoral overgrowth (FO) of the affected limb during follow-up

From: Femoral overgrowth in children with congenital pseudarthrosis of the Tibia

Patient Sex At initial presentation Number of DO treatments Amount of DO (mm) At last follow-up Nature of FOc Modified Shapiro’s Type
Age (years) Segment length discrepancy (mm) Age (years) Segment length discrepancy (mm)
Femur (Length-gain effect)b Tibia Femur (Length-gain effect)b Tibia
1a F 7.3 +10 (0) −9 none 0 16.3 +10 (0) −6 A 3
2a F 1.3 +17 (3) −48 1 16 15.0 +17 (3) −4 A 3
3a F 0.8 +12 (4) −61 1 52 7.7 +10 (3) −13 A 3
4a M 0.8 +10 (6) +2 1 30 10.0 +10 (4) −3 A 3
5a M 1.0 +10 (3) −6 none 0 17.0 +13 (3) −3 A 4
6a M 5.0 +15 (3) −2 1 15 17.3 +10 (3) −22 A unclassifiable
7a M 3.2 +10 (4) −3 1 12 12.0 +10 (2) −13 A 3
8a M 1.0 +7 (3) −30 3 90 16.0 +13 (3) −48 B 4
9a F 0.1 +5 (4) −98 1 53 13.9 +11 (1) −28 B 2
10a M 6.1 0 (2) −6 1 50 20.4 +10 (2) −3 B 1
11a F 0.8 0 (3) −13 1 35 19.1 +12 (3) −19 B 4
12a M 5.3 +6 (4) −10 1 17 17.3 +18 (6) +1 B 2
13a M 5.5 +8 (5) −35 1 15 14.6 +12 (3) −18 B 2
14a F 6.6 +3 (4) −18 1 15 17.6 +15 (3) −28 B 3
15a F 7.1 +23 (3) −48 3 111 16.3 0 (2) −25 C unclassifiable
16a F 7.0 +14 (3) −75 2 102 16.0 +5 (4) −21 C unclassifiable
17a M 1.0 +11 (4) −59 2 76 8.3 +4 (4) +4 C unclassifiable
18a F 0.2 +10 (1) −41 1 33 7.5 0 (1) +6 C unclassifiable
19a M 1.3 +5 (2) −10 1 69 16.0 +7 (4) −3 D 5
20a F 2.9 +3 (4) −90 1 38 16.1 +8 (4) −19 D 5
21a F 3.7 0 (1) −46 1 15 14.1 +2 (2) −21 D 5
22a F 0.3 +2 (1) −10 none 0 13.8 +5 (0) −12 D 5
  1. DO, distraction osteogenesis
  2. Data represent the discrepancy of the femur and tibia (+, longer in the affected limb; −, shorter in the affected limb)
  3. aPatient 1 was the only patient with prepseudarthrosis; all of the other patients presented with atrophic-type CPT
  4. bLength-gain effect was defined as the effect of an increased femoral neck-shaft angle on FO. The length-gain effect was calculated by subtracting the distance between the summit of the femoral head and the mid-level of the lesser trochanter of the unaffected limb from the distance between the summit of the femoral head and the mid-level of the lesser trochanter of the affected limb
  5. cThe nature of FO was classified as follows: FO that was consistent from the initial presentation to the last follow-up (Type A); FO that was not observed at the initial presentation but that developed during treatment and remained consistent until the last follow-up (Type B); FO that was observed at the initial presentation but that was not apparent during follow-up (Type C); and FO that developed after the initial presentation and subsequently resolved (Type D)