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Table 3 Patient history and clinical findings following an atypical femoral fracture

From: Management of atypical femoral fracture: a scoping review and comprehensive algorithm

 - Collagen diseases
 - Rheumatoid arthritis
 - Pulmonary diseases (asthma, other chronic pulmonary disease)
 - Bisphosphonate or other antiresorptive therapy
 - Proton pomp inhibitors
 - Glucocorticoid therapy
Incomplete fractures:
 - Persistent groin or thigh pain
Complete fractures:
 - History of groin or thigh pain (not always)
 - Acute pain, limb shortening and swelling, ecchymosis