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Table 1 Summary of regenerative techniques

From: Mesenchymal stem cell therapy in the treatment of osteoarthritis: reparative pathways, safety and efficacy – a review

Technique Indication Outcome Level of evidence Ref
Autologous Chondrocyte Transplantation Isolated chondral defects Benefits
- can result in hyaline like cartilage formation
- observed pain and functional improvement
Limitations
- donor site morbidity
- poor integration with surrounding tissue
- may result in fibrocartilage formation
Level II-V [8290]
MIcrofracture Isolated chondral defects Benefits
- single stage surgical technique
- observed pain and functional improvement
Limitations
- fibrocartilage formation
- inadequate defect filling
- poor long term outcome
Level I-V [9296]
Mosaicplasty Isolated osteochondral defects Benefits
- use in deep osteochondral defects
Limitations
- graft resorption
- donor site morbidity
- poor long term outcome
Level II-V [98100]
MSC Scaffold Transplantation Isolated chondral defects Benefits
- hyaline like cartilage repair
- nil donor site morbidity
- observed pain and functional improvement
Limitations
- potential chondrocyte hypertrophy
Level II- V [108111]
MSC Injectable Techniques Isolated chondral defects
Osteoarthritis
Benefits
- use in generalized arthritis
- relatively simple application
- observed pain and functional improvement
Limitations
- limited evidence of efficacy
- inconsistent observation of disease modification
Level II-V [117128]