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Table 1 Summary of outcome measures will be used to determine effectiveness of the treatment

From: Effect of retro and forward walking on quadriceps muscle strength, pain, function, and mobility in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial


Measurement tool

Primary outcomes

Knee pain

NRS, Reduced WOMAC pain subscale

Knee function

Reduced WOMAC physical function subscale

Secondary outcomes

Isometric quadriceps muscle strength

Hand held dynamometer

Functional mobility

Timed up and go test

  1. NRS numeral rating scale, WOMAC Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index