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Table 3 Results Cross-sectional Analysis for Disability (ODI or NDI)

From: Obesity is associated with more disability at presentation and after treatment in low back pain but not in neck pain: findings from the OIOC registry

  BMI category Beta (95 % CI) p-value
LBPa Lean (reference)
  Underweight 3.02 (−8.06; 14.10) 0.59
  Overweight 1.17 (−2.17; 4.52) 0.49
  Obesity class I 5.41 (0.75; 10.07) 0.02
  Obesity class II–III 7.58 (2.13; 13.03) 0.01
  Low education 11.20 (5.45; 16.94) 0.00
  Blue collar jobs 1.23 (−2.56; 5.01) 0.53
  Not working 3.06 (−0.62; 6.73) 0.10
  Work-related RF 7.82 (0.33; 15.32) 0.04
  High pain baseline 15.59 (12.86; 18.31) 0.00
  FABQ-W high 5.30 (−0.13; 10.73) 0.06
  FABQ-W N/A 4.98 (0.31; 9.66) 0.04
  Underweight x Low education −11.99 (−36.47; 12.50) 0.33
  Overweight x Low education −4.48 (−11.94; 2.99) 0.24
  Obesity class I x Low education −6.12 (−14.48; 2.25) 0.15
  Obesity class II–II x Low education −12.33 (−22.80;−1.87) 0.02
NPb Lean (reference)   
  Underweight 4.57 (−1.70; 10.83) 0.15
  Overweight −1.11 (−3.61; 1.40) 0.38
  Obesity class I −0.32 (−3.90; 3.26) 0.86
  Obesity class II–III −0.95 (−6.90; 5.00) 0.75
  Age −0.04 (−0.13; 0.06) 0.43
  Male gender −1.32 (−3.82; 1.19) 0.30
  No relationship 2.19 (−0.17; 4.55) 0.07
  Blue collar jobs 1.21 (−2.65; 5.07) 0.53
  Not working 2.21 (−0.78; 5.20) 0.14
  Work-related RF 3.37 (−1.12, 7.85) 0.14
  High baseline pain 5.84 (3.03; 8.66) <0.001
  High FABQ-P 4.53 (2.07; 6.98) <0.001
  High FABQ-W 3.45 (−0.26; 7.15) 0.07
  FABQ-W N/A −1.23 (−5.35; 2.89) 0.55
  1. Pre-defined confounders were: low education (high school or less), blue collar jobs includes crafts or trade worker, agricultural or elementary worker, high FABQ-W, FABQ-W N/A = not working, high pain (NRS > 6), age, gender, not in a relationship
  2. High pain (NRS > 6), FABQ, fear avoidance questionnaire, fear avoidance work sub-scale (FABQ-W) high > 25; fear avoidance beliefs physical sub-scale (FABQ-P) high >15
  3. Work related risk factor: working full time at alternate or limited duty job because of a medical condition; not working because of pain or ill health; looked but can’t find a job; not working because of the main complaint in a job-related injury; pending workers compensation case
  4. aConfounder included in the final model when they changed the effect between BMI and ODI/NDI by at least 10 %. Interactions with BMI were included if they were significantly different from zero (p < 0.05)
  5. bConfounder included in the final model when they changed the effect between BMI and ODI/NDI by at least 10 %. In NP no interactions of confounders with BMI were found