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Table 1 Basic data of active and passive joint position senses (AJPS, PJPS) for internal and external rotation (IR and ER) and isokinetic parameters for 180° speed for the involved (I) and uninvolved (U) shoulders of 23 patients operated on for idiopathic frozen shoulder, with statistical data regarding the particular comparisons between them (Wilcoxon test; p <0.05)

From: Shoulder proprioception – lessons we learned from idiopathic frozen shoulder

Parameters Shoulder Mean SD Range p Value
AJPS IR 0 I 5.03 3.53 1.3–15.3 0.054
U 3.84 1.97 2.0–10.3
AJPS ER0 I 6.56 3.52 2.0–14.3 0.013
U 4.71 2.50 1.7–11
PJPS IR0 I 4.23 1.41 2.3–7.3 0.112
U 3.59 1.44 1.7–6.0
PJPS ER0 I 5.37 2.48 2.0–12.3 0.024
U 3.80 1.82 1.3–7.3
Peak Torque IR (Nm) I 16.60 11.98 3.0–52.9 0.187
U 18.30 11.37 3.2–46.6
Peak Torque ER (Nm) I 13.76 8.67 2.2–34.6 0.011
U 15.82 7.09 6.8–32.8
Average Peak Torque IR (Nm) I 14.60 11.76 2.5–51.3 0.119
U 16.35 10.66 2.2–41.3
Average Peak Torque ER (Nm) I 12.44 8.31 1.2–32.0 0.015
U 14.27 7.04 4.8–32.2
Time to Peak Torque IR (msec) I 432.17 151.81 230–800 0.003
U 364.78 117.20 210–650
Time to Peak Torque ER (msec) I 423.91 237.04 180–1120 0.012
U 332.61 110.83 200–680
Acceleration time IR (msec) I 256.52 96.18 100–490 0.196
U 250.44 109.77 100–530
Acceleration time ER (msec) I 286.52 118.19 100–560 0.007
U 230 74.53 110–380
Deceleration time IR (msec) I 335.23 133.07 130–650 0.224
U 301.74 138.36 130–600
Deceleration time ER (msec) I 280 120.30 130–590 0.284
U 251.3 107.51 100–480