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Table 3 Secondary outcomes in the physical therapy and local injection, physical therapy + local injection, physical therapy and local injection at 3 months in patients with myofascial pain syndrome

From: Treatment of myofascial pain syndrome with lidocaine injection and physical therapy, alone or in combination: a single blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial

Outcomes Physical therapy + local injection (n = 41) Physical therapy (n = 43) P value Local injection (n = 43) P value*
Visual Analogue Scale for Pain (Mean, SD) 21.6 (21.8) 28.2 (23.7) 0.192 28.8 (22.3) 0.141
PHQ 9 (Mean, SD) 3.98 (3.97) 4.12 (4.48) 0.877 3.16 (2.81) 0.284
Quality of life SF-36 (Mean, SD)
 Bodily pain (BP) 66.58 (20.09) 65.66 (20.9) 0.69 61.19 (17.67) 0.16
 Role-emotional (RE) 83.25 (32.11) 84.13 (32.95) 0.70 90.60 (21.15) 0.38
 Role-physical (RP) 81.88 (30.48) 82.5 (31.11) 0.75 87.79 (22.07) 0.44
 Physical functioning (PF) 87.75 (16.94) 89.13 (12.29) 0.56 90 (9.06) 0.41
 Social function (SF) 82.6 (20.99) 83.05 (20.71) 0.88 83.28 (17.44) 0.87
 General health (GH) 71.67 (17.26) 68.25 (22.37) 0.72 77.44 (12.50) 0.15
 Mental health (MH 75.3 (16.79) 71.32 (17.86) 0.30 78.95 (14.03) 0.43
 Vitality (VT) 63.38 (16.11) 61.95 (18.53) 0.77 69.64 (16.17) 0.20
  1. *T-test to compare differences between groups at month
  2. Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Items are scored from 0 (not at all) to 3 (nearly every day). Items are summed and the total score (from 0 to 27) represents the severity of depressive symptoms. Higher scores on the Visual Analogue Scale for Pain (VAS-P) indicate more pain, with a maximum of 100 (range, 0–100). Short Form Health Survey, the SF-36 with eight sub-scales: BP bodily pain, RE role limitations as a result of- emotional problems, RP role limitations as a result of physical problems, PF physical functioning, SF social functioning, GH general health perception, MH general mental health, VT vitality (the frequency of feeling full of energy vs. feeling tired), SF social functioning, MH general mental health. Total sub-scale scores range from 0–100 with higher scores indicating better quality of life