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Table 2 Details of papers included in review

From: The first metatarsophalangeal joint in gout: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author Location Study design Aim Characteristics of gout participants Outcome measures relevant to review
Bellamy [27] Canada Longitudinal cohort Natural progression of 1MTP acute flares N = 11
Male 100 %
Mean age 55 years
Mean disease duration 4 years
Diagnosis: “patients presenting with classical features of acute podagra, had experienced prior attacks of gouty arthritis and were known to be or have been hyperuricaemic”.
Clinical characteristics of 1MTP gout
Carter [32] USA Cross-sectional The presence of synovial inflammation during intercritical gout N = 72
Male 90 %
Mean age 56 years
Mean disease duration 10 years
Diagnosis: ACR criteria (incl. 42 % crystal proven)
Epidemiology of 1MTP gout
Dalbeth [58] New Zealand Cross-sectional Scoring bone erosion in gout using CT imaging N = 25
Male 75 %
Median age 60 years
Median disease duration 21 years
Diagnosis: ACR criteria (incl. 44 % crystal proven)
Imaging features of the 1MTP in gout
Dalbeth [55] New Zealand Cross-sectional Relationship between radiographic joint damage and MSU crystal deposition using DECT imaging N = 92
Male 93 %
Mean age 58 years
Mean disease duration 22 years
Diagnosis: ACR criteria (incl. 48 % crystal proven)
Imaging features of the 1MTP in gout
Dalbeth [54] New Zealand Cross-sectional Comparison of DECT MSU deposition in people with gout and people with asymptomatic hyperuricaemia N = 33
Male = 85 %
Mean age 61 years
Mean disease duration 11 years
Diagnosis: MSU crystal proven
Imaging features of the 1MTP in gout
Deesomchok [34]* Thailand Cross-sectional Clinical pattern of gout in females and males N = 194
Male 89 %
Mean age 59 (F) 52 (M) years
Mean disease duration 3 (F) 10 (M) years
Diagnosis: ACR criteria (incl. 81 % crystal proven)
Epidemiology of 1MTP gout
DeSouza [36] Brazil Cross-sectional Clinical and laboratory features of gout in men and women N = 58
Male 53 %
Mean age 64 (F) 61 (M) years
Mean disease duration 9 (F) 14 (M) years
Diagnosis: ACR criteria (% crystal proven not reported)
Epidemiology of 1MTP gout
Grahame [29]* UK Retrospective Characteristics of patients with gout N = 354
Male 90 %
Mean age NR
Mean disease duration NR
Diagnosis: patients with “recurrent acute episodes of arthritis in the presence of hyperuricaemia”
Epidemiology of 1MTP gout
Hall [28]* USA Longitudinal cohort Epidemiology of gout and hyperuricaemia N = 86
Male 87 %
Mean age 58 years
Mean disease duration 9 years
Diagnosis: patients who met two of the following: a typical attack of arthritis characterised by acute pain, usually accompanied by swelling and heat, lasting from a few day sot 2 weeks, and followed by complete remission of symptoms; an attack of arthritis exhibiting a striking and prompt response to therapeutic colchicine; the presence of hyperuricaemia.
Epidemiology of 1MTP gout
Howard [67] USA Cross-sectional Reliability of ultrasound for tophi and double contour sign N = 50
Male 100 %
Mean age 69 years
Mean disease duration NR
Diagnosis: ACR criteria (% crystal proven not reported)
Imaging features of the 1MTP in gout
Huppertz [31]* Germany Case-control Diagnostic accuracy of DECT and ultrasound for detecting MSU crystal deposition N = 39
Male NR
Mean age NR
Disease duration newly diagnosed
Diagnosis: Janssens score [10] of >8 or MSU crystal proven (46 %)
Imaging features of the 1MTP in gout
Janssens [10]* Netherlands Cross-sectional Validation of a diagnostic model to predict gout N = 209
Male 89.5 %
Mean age 59 years
Mean disease duration NR
Diagnosis: MSU crystal proven
Epidemiology of 1MTP gout
Kawenoki-Minc [21] Poland Cross-sectional Incidence of radiographic evidence of degenerative articular changes in patients with gout N = 262
Male NR
Mean age NR
Mean disease duration NR
Diagnosis: not reported
Imaging features of the 1MTP in gout
Kennedy [30] London Cross-sectional MSU crystal presence in aspirated 1MTP joint fluid N = 31
Male 100 %
Mean age 61 years
Mean disease duration 10 years
Diagnosis: patients who had “previously had podagra” including 52 % who were MSU crystal proven
Microscopy in 1MTP gout
Kienhorst [37] Netherlands Longitudinal cohort Validation of clinical diagnosis of 1MTP gout N = 123
Male 85 %
Mean age 59 years
Mean disease duration NR
Diagnosis: MSU crystal proven
Clinical characteristics of 1MTP gout
Kim [68] Korea Cross-sectional DECT presence of MSU deposition N = 101
Male 95 %
Mean age NR
Mean disease duration NR
Diagnosis: ACR criteria (% crystal proven not reported)
Imaging features of the 1MTP in gout
Kim [43] Korea Longitudinal cohort Comparison of clinical outcomes of arthrodesis and tophi excision & evaluate MRI features of tophaceous gout N = 15
Male 67 %
Mean age 57 years
Mean disease duration NR
Diagnosis: MSU crystal proven
Clinical characteristics of 1MTP gout; Functional characteristics of 1MTP gout; Imaging features of the 1MTP in gout
Lally [35]* USA Retrospective Comparison of gouty arthritis in men and women N = 98
Male 77 %
Mean age 63 (F) 63 (M) years
Mean disease duration 5 (F) 14 (M) years
Diagnosis: MSU crystal proven
Epidemiology of 1MTP gout
Mallinson [25] Canada Retrospective Distribution of MSU crystal deposition in gout using DECT imaging N = 148
Male 82 %
Mean age 61 years
Mean disease duration NR
Diagnosis: not reported
Microscopy in 1MTP gout
Mijiyawa [38]* Togo Retrospective Characteristics of patients with gout N = 106
Male 99 %
Mean age 53 years
Mean disease duration 8 years
Diagnosis: ACR criteria (incl. 17 % crystal proven)
Epidemiology of 1MTP gout
Kang [41] Korea Longitudinal cohort Ultrasound characteristics of gout & efficacy of intra-articular steroid injection for acute 1MTP flares N = 21
Male 86 %
Mean age 64 years
Mean disease duration NR
Diagnosis: ACR criteria (% crystal proven not reported)
Clinical characteristics of 1MTP gout; Imaging features of the 1MTP in gout
Naredo [50] Spain Case-control Diagnostic value of ultrasound for gout N = 91
Male 100 %
Mean age 56 years
Mean disease duration 7 years
Diagnosis: MSU crystal proven
Imaging features of the 1MTP in gout
Ordonez [17] Spain Cross-sectional Reliability of ultrasound in detection of lesion at 1MTP in gout N = 15
Male NR
Mean age NR
Mean disease duration NR
Diagnosis: not reported
Imaging features of the 1MTP in gout
Ottaviani [52] France Longitudinal cohort Ultrasonography showing disappearance of MSU crystals following urate lowering therapy N = 16
Male 100 %
Mean age 61 years
Mean disease duration 7 years
Diagnosis: MSU crystal proven
Imaging features of the 1MTP in gout
Pascual [46] Spain Cross-sectional MSU crystal presence in aspirated 1MTP joint fluid N = 101
Male 98 %
Mean age 56 years
Mean disease duration 5 years
Diagnosis: ACR criteria (incl. 77 % crystal proven)
Microscopy in 1MTP gout
Pascual [69] Spain Longitudinal cohort Disappearance of MSU crystals following urate lowering therapy N = 18
Male 100 %
Mean age 56 years
Mean disease duration 10 years
Diagnosis: MSU crystal proven
Microscopy in 1MTP gout
Pelaez-Ballestas [9]* Mexico Cross-sectional Identifying criteria for diagnosis of chronic gout N = 549
Male 96 %
Mean age 50 years
Mean disease duration 12 years
Diagnosis: MSU crystal proven
Epidemiology of 1MTP gout
Radak-Perovic [22] Serbia Case-control Comparison of ultrasound and x-ray for detection of 1MTP erosions N = 30
Male NR
Mean age NR
Mean disease duration NR
Diagnosis: ACR criteria (% crystal proven not reported)
Imaging features of the 1MTP in gout
Roddy [24] UK Case-control Concomitant gout and osteoarthritis N = 164
Male 81 %
Mean age 63 years
Mean disease duration 10 years
Diagnosis: 91 % met ACR criteria (% crystal proven not reported)
Epidemiology of 1MTP gout; Functional characteristics of 1MTP gout
Roddy [51] UK Cross-sectional Ultrasound characteristics of gout N = 40
Male 78 %
Mean age 65 years
Mean disease duration 13 years
Diagnosis: ACR criteria (incl. 53 % crystal proven)
Imaging features of the 1MTP in gout
Roddy [18] UK Cross-sectional Prevalence of hallux valgus, foot pain and disability in gout N = 1184
Male 78 %
Mean age 66 years
Mean disease duration 12 years
Diagnosis: “Patients who had consulted their GP about gout or been prescribed allopurinol or colchicine within the preceding 2 years”
Clinical characteristics of 1MTP gout; Structural characteristics of 1MTP gout
Roddy [23] UK Case-Control Nodal osteoarthritis and the risk of developing gout N = 164
Male 81 %
Mean age 63 years
Mean disease duration 10 years
Diagnosis: 91 % met ACR criteria (% crystal proven not reported)
Clinical characteristics of 1MTP gout; Structural characteristics of 1MTP gout
Rome [45] New Zealand Case-control Functional and biomechanical characteristics of gait in people with gout N =25
Male 75 %
Mean age 61 years
Mean disease duration 22 years
Diagnosis: ACR criteria (incl. 44 % crystal proven)
Functional characteristics of 1MTP gout
Rouault [39]* USA Case-control 1MTP aspiration as a diagnostic tool for gout N = 23
Male NR
Mean age NR
Mean disease duration NR
Diagnosis: MSU crystal proven
Epidemiology of 1MTP gout; Microscopy in 1MTP gout
Sivera [47] Spain Cross-sectional Feasibility of 1MTP aspiration for gout diagnosis N = 22
Male 82 %
Mean age 61 years
Mean disease duration NR
Diagnosis: MSU crystal proven
Microscopy in 1MTP gout
Sun [53] China Cross-sectional DECT imaging features of gout N = 80
Male 94 %
Mean age 52 years
Mean disease duration 5 years
Diagnosis: ACR criteria (% crystal proven not reported)
Imaging features of the 1MTP in gout
Taylor [33]* Multinational, multicentre Cross-sectional Clinical, laboratory, imaging findings in gout N = 509
Male 86 %
Mean age 60 years
Median disease duration 6 years
Diagnosis: MSU crystal proven
Epidemiology of 1MTP gout; Clinical characteristics of 1MTP gout
Thiele [56] USA Case-control Sonographic features of gout N = 16
Male 81 %
Mean age 64 years
Mean disease duration NR
Diagnosis: MSU crystal proven
Imaging features of the 1MTP in gout
Thiele [57] USA Retrospective Detection of erosions with ultrasound and conventional radiography in chronic gout N = 42
Male NR
Mean age NR
Mean disease duration NR
Diagnosis: MSU crystal proven
Imaging features of the 1MTP in gout
Vreju [19] Romania Longitudinal cohort Importance of ultrasound in gout diagnosis N = 23
Male 53 %
Mean age 53 years
Disease duration < 1 year
Diagnosis: not reported
Imaging features of the 1MTP in gout
Wang [26] Taiwan Randomised controlled trial Comparison of arthroscopic removal of 1MTP MSU crystals with medical treatment alone N = 28
Male 100 %
Mean age 28 years
Mean disease duration 2 years
Diagnosis: not reported
Clinical characteristics of 1MTP gout; Functional characteristics of 1MTP gout
Wallace [7]* USA Cross-sectional Development of a criteria for the classification of arthritis due to primary gout N = 178
Male 86 %
Mean age 56 years
Mean disease duration 10 years
Diagnosis: 88 % met ACR criteria (incl. 43 % crystal proven)
Epidemiology of 1MTP gout
Weinberger [48] USA Case-control MSU crystals in aspirated 1MTP joint fluid N = 9
Male 100 %
Mean age 54 years
Mean disease duration 2 years
Diagnosis: MSU crystal proven
Microscopy in 1MTP gout
Wright [42] Ireland Case-control Comparison of ultrasound and x-ray for detection of erosions in gout N = 39
Male 100 %
Mean age 52 years
Mean disease duration 12 years
Diagnosis: ACR criteria (incl. 28 % crystal proven)
Imaging features of the 1MTP in gout
Zleik [20] USA Longitudinal cohort Risk & predictors additional flares in newly diagnosed gout N = 158
Male 73 %
Mean age 59 years
Mean disease duration Newly diagnosed
Diagnosis: via the New York, Rome or ACR criteria (% crystal proven not reported)
Epidemiology of 1MTP gout
  1. *Papers included in meta-analysis; NR = Not Reported