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Table 2 Changes in headache intensity (NPRS) and disability (NDI) with 95 % confidence intervals for both groups and between-group differences

From: Upper cervical and upper thoracic manipulation versus mobilization and exercise in patients with cervicogenic headache: a multi-center randomized clinical trial

Variable Manipulation Mobilization and Exercise Between-Group Differences
Headache Intensity (NPRS 0–10)
 Baseline: Mean (SD) 6.4 (1.6) 6.0 (2.1)  
 1-Week: Mean (SD) 3.1 (1.9) 4.9 (1.8)
 Change Score: Baseline to 1-Week 3.2 (2.6, 3.8) 1.2 (0.6, 1.7) 2.1 (1.2, 2.9); P < 0.001
 4-Week: Mean (SD) 1.8 (1.6) 3.8 (2.0)  
 Change Score: Baseline to 4-Week 4.5 (4.0, 5.1) 2.2 (1.7, 2.8) 2.3 (1.5, 3.1); P < 0.001
 3-Month: Mean (SD) 2.0 (1.8) 3.8 (1.9)  
 Change Score: Baseline to 3-Month 4.3 (3.7, 4.9) 2.2 (1.6, 2.9) 2.1 (1.2, 3.0); P < 0.001
Disability (NDI 0–50)
 Baseline: Mean (SD) 18.1 (7.9) 19.2 (7.8)  
 1-Week: Mean (SD) 11.9 (8.5) 16.1 (7.5)
 Change Score: Baseline to 1-Week 6.2 (4.8, 7.6) 3.1 (2.0, 4.1) 3.1 (1.4, 4.9); P < 0.001
 4-Week: Mean (SD) 6.5 (5.4) 13.0 (7.5)  
 Change Score: Baseline to 4-Week 11.6 (9.7, 13.4) 6.1 (4.9, 7.4) 5.4 (3.2, 7.7); P < 0.001
 3-Month: Mean (SD) 6.3 (5.9) 13.5 (7.8)  
 Change Score: Baseline to 3-Month 11.7 (9.7, 13.8) 5.7 (4.2, 7.2) 6.0 (3.5, 8.6); P < 0.001
  1. NPRS Numeric Pain Rating Scale, 0–10, lower scores indicate less pain; NDI Neck Disability Index, 0–50, lower scores indicate greater function