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Table 2 Primary outcomes, by allocation to each impairment-specific exercise package in turn

From: Impairment-targeted exercises for older adults with knee pain: a proof-of-principle study (TargET-Knee-Pain)

  Allocated impairment-specific exercise package Not allocated impairment-specific exercise package Coefficient (95 % CI)a p-value
  Stretching exercises   
  n = 28 n = 30   
Knee flexion range of motion (degrees): mean (SD)
 Baseline 113.4 (10.6) 132.6 (7.1)   
 6 weeks 119.4 (9.3) 131.9 (7.1) 2.06 (−1.36, 5.48) 0.232
 12 weeks 123.1 (8.5) 131.2 (6.3) 2.12 (−2.28, 6.51) 0.338
  Strengthening exercises   
  n = 13 n = 45   
Quadriceps isometric strength (KgF): mean (SD)
 Baseline 12.7 (8.9) 18.9 (8.9)   
 6 weeks 17.1 (8.1) 20.5 (8.8) 0.02 (−4.15, 4.20)b 0.992
 12 weeks 21.9 (6.1) 20.6 (8.4) 3.94 (0.12, 7.77)b 0.043
  Balance retraining exercises   
  n = 41 n = 17   
Single-leg standing balance time (seconds): median (IQR)
 Baseline 3.0 (3.5) 14.5 (14.5)   
 6 weeks 5.0 (15.0) 17.5 (13.0) −1.6 (−8.4, 5.1) 0.633
 12 weeks 9.0 (23.3) 21.5 (17.3) −1.5 (−9.3, 6.4) 0.713
  1. aValues are coefficients (95 % confidence intervals) from linear regression models of allocated impairment-specific exercise package vs. not allocated impairment-specific exercise package for primary outcomes at 6 weeks and 12 weeks, adjusted for baseline score, age, gender, and concurrent allocation to other impairment-specific exercise packages
  2. bCoefficients additional adjusted for body mass index