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Table 2 Foot and ankle fall risk factors (n = 201). Data presented as mean (SD) unless specified

From: Foot and ankle characteristics associated with falls in adults with established rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study

Foot erosion on radiograph, n (%) 112 (62)
Previous foot surgery, n (%) 29 (21)
Presence of foot pain, n (%) 147 (73)
Foot pain (VAS 0–100), mm 32 (29)
Tender joint count (lower limb) 6.0 (7.2)
Swollen joint count (lower limb) 1.8 (3.4)
Presence of tender and/or swollen joints (lower limb), n (%) 148 (74)
Foot problem score 15 (8)
Pes planovalgus foot-type, n (%) 68 (34)
Presence of bunion deformity, n (%) 130 (65)
Monofilament sites felt (0–12) 10 (3)
Vibration perception threshold ≥ 26 mV, n (%) 85 (43)
Foot muscle strength, N  
 Dorsiflexion 63 (33)
 Plantarflexion 69 (29)
 Inversion 33 (17)
 Eversion 30 (15)
Ankle range of motion, degrees 58 (7)
Gait speed, m/s 1.07 (0.3)
Peak plantar pressure, kPa  
 Forefoot 310 (66)
 Midfoot 113 (62)
 Rearfoot 243 (69)
Failed paper grip test hallux, n (%) 101 (50)
Failed paper grip test lesser toes, n (%) 102 (50)
Toe strength hallux, N (%BW) 4.5 (2.5)
Toes strength lessor toes, N (%BW) 2.1 (1.2)
Eyes-open postural sway, mm  
 AP direction 20.9 (9.7)
 ML direction 14.2 (8.7)
Eyes-closed postural sway, mm  
 AP direction 29.4 (12.9)
 ML direction 17.4 (9.7)
Has seen a podiatrist before, n (%) 107 (53)
Receives regular podiatry treatment, n (%) 32 (16)
FISTOTAL score (0–51) 25 (12)
FISIF subscale score (0–21) 10 (5)
FISAP subscale score (0–30) 15 (9)
Good footwear type worn to study visit, n (%) 102 (51)
Average footwear type worn to study visit, n (%) 18 (9)
Poor footwear type worn to study visit, n (%) 81 (40)
  1. VAS visual analogue scale, AP antero-posterior, ML medio-lateral, FIS IF foot impact scale impairment/footwear subscale; FIS AP foot impact scale activities/participation subscale