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Table 5 The association between baseline 25 (OH) D and 1,25 (OH) 2D and the number of painful sites at follow up

From: Low vitamin D and the risk of developing chronic widespread pain: results from the European male ageing study

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
25 (OH) D-quintiles     
 1: ≥36.3 ng/mL Referent Referent Referent Referent
 2: 26.7–36.2 ng/mL 1.16 (1.00–1.34)* 1.12 (0.98–1.28) 1.11 (0.97–1.26) 1.13 (0.99–1.29)
 3: 20.7–26.6 ng/mL 1.05 (0.91–1.22) 1.05 (0.92–1.21) 1.03 (0.90–1.19) 1.03 (0.90–1.18)
 4: 15.6–20.6 ng/mL 1.12 (0.96–1.30) 1.12 (0.98–1.29) 1.12 (0.97–1.28) 1.12 (0.97–1.28)
 5: <15.6 ng/mL 1.20 (1.03–1.40)* 1.14 (0.99–1.31) 1.11 (0.97–1.28) 1.10 (0.95–1.26)
1,25 (OH) 2 D-quintiles     
 1: ≥72.5 pg/ml Referent Referent Referent Referent
 2: 62.2–72.5 pg/mL 0.95 (0.81–1.11) 0.93 (0.81–1.07) 0.92 (0.80–1.06) 0.93 (0.81–1.07)
 3: 55.2–62.0 pg/mL 0.98 (0.84–1.14) 0.99 (0.86–1.14) 0.98 (0.85–1.13) 1.00 (0.86–1.15)
 4: 45.4–55.0 pg/mL 1.06 (0.91–1.23) 1.09 (0.95–1.26) 1.10 (0.96–1.27) 1.10 (0.95–1.26)
 5: <45.4 pg/mL 1.03 (0.88–1.21) 1.10 (0.88–1.17) 1.04 (0.90–1.20) 1.03 (0.89–1.19)
  1. Results determined using zero-inflated negative binomial regression with those in the highest quintile serving as the referent group. Results are expressed as Incidence rate ratio (95 % confidence intervals) * p < 0.05. 25-(OH) D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3; 1,25-(OH) 2D, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3. Model 1, adjusted for age and centre; Model 2, adjusted for age, centre and number of pain sites at baseline; Model 3, adjusted for age, centre, and number of pain sites at baseline and physical performance (sit to stand time and time to walk 50 feet); Model 4, adjusted for age, centre, and number of pain sites at baseline, physical performance, number of comorbidities, body mass index and depression (the presence of depression was determined using Beck Depression Inventory with scores ≥10 indicating depression)