Skip to main content

Table 4 The association between baseline 25 (OH) D and 1,25 (OH) 2D and the new occurrence of chronic widespread pain

From: Low vitamin D and the risk of developing chronic widespread pain: results from the European male ageing study

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
25 (OH) D–quintiles     
1: ≥36.3 ng/mL Referent Referent Referent Referent
2: 26.7–36.2 ng/mL 1.41 (0.76–2.59) 1.24 (0.66–2.32) 1.23 (0.64–2.33) 1.07 (0.55–2.08)
3: 20.7–26.6 ng/mL 1.43 (0.77–2.65) 1.29 (0.68–2.43) 1.30 (0.68–2.48) 1.18 (0.60–2.30)
4: 15.6–20.6 ng/mL 1.29 (0.68–2.42) 1.17 (0.61–2.23) 1.19 (0.61–2.30) 1.18 (0.60–2.31
5: <15.6 ng/mL 2.32 (1.27–4.23)* 2.03 (1.10–3.75)* 1.93 (1.03–3.62)* 1.60 (0.83–3.09)
1,25 (OH) 2 D–quintiles     
1: ≥72.5 pg/ml Referent Referent Referent Referent
2: 62.2–72.5 pg/mL 1.15 (0.60–2.21) 1.05 (0.54–2.04) 0.99 (0.50–1.96) 0.94 (0.46–1.90)
3: 55.2–62.0 pg/mL 1.23 (0.65–2.34) 1.12 (0.58–2.17) 1.12 (0.57–2.20) 1.07 (0.52–2.17)
4: 45.4–55.0 pg/mL 1.37 (0.70–2.65) 1.41 (0.72–2.77) 1.42 (0.71–2.83) 1.33 (0.65–2.73)
5: <45.4 pg/mL 1.79 (0.94–3.42) 1.70 (0.87–3.31) 1.55 (0.78–3.08) 1.52 (0.74–3.11)
  1. Results determined using logistic regression with those in the highest quintile serving as the referent group. Results are expressed as odds ratio (95 % confidence intervals) * p < 0.05. 25 (OH) D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3; 1,25 (OH) 2D, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3. Model 1, adjusted for age and centre; Model 2, adjusted for age, centre and physical performance (sit to stand time and time to walk 50 feet); Model 3, adjusted for age, centre, physical performance and comorbidities; Model 4, adjusted for age, centre, physical performance, comorbidities, body mass index and depression (the presence of depression was determined using Beck Depression Inventory with scores ≥10 indicating depression)