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Table 3 Subject characteristics at baseline by pain status

From: Low vitamin D and the risk of developing chronic widespread pain: results from the European male ageing study

Subject characteristics Pain free at baseline and follow up (N = 577) New onset chronic widespread pain at follow up (N = 151)
  mean (SD) mean (SD)
Age (years) 58.9 (10.7) 59.3 (10.5)
Body mass index (kg/m2) 27.2 (3.8) 28.6 (4.2)‡
Sit to stand time (seconds) 12.2 (3.0) 13.3 (4.0)‡
Time to walk 50 feet (seconds) 12.9 (2.2) 14.2 (4.7)‡
PASE score 196.0 (94.4) 194.8 (89.1)
25 (OH) D (ng/mL) 26.3 (12.2) 24.2 (12.2)
1,25 (OH) 2D (pg/mL) 60.2 (16.3) 58.2 (17.2)
Alcohol-number of days alcohol consumed N (%) N (%)
 Never 82 (14.2) 34 (22.7)
 <1 week 166 (28.8) 38 (25.3)
 1–2 124 (21.5) 29 (19.3)
 3–4 66 (11.4) 21 (14.0)
 5–6 38 (6.6) 11 (7.3)
 7 101 (17.5) 17 (11.3)
Ever smoked (vs. never smoker) 377 (66.6) 110 (73.3)
Depressiona (vs. not depressed) 32 (5.6) 35 (23.5)†
Number of comorbidities   
 None 272 (47.1) 37 (24.5)
 1 108 (18.7) 25 (16.6)
 ≥2 197 (34.1) 89 (58.9)†
Self-reported ≥30 minutes walking/cycling outside per day (vs. <30 minutes) 382 (66.4) 99 (65.6)
  1. PASE, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly; 25 (OH) D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3; 1,25 (OH) 2 D, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3. *The presence of depression was determined using Beck Depression Inventory with scores ≥10 indicating the presence of depression. †Chi squared test p < 0.05, ‡T test p < 0.05