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Table 2 Ranking of criteria based on group means of the BSCOS members. Shown are means with standard deviations in parentheses

From: The most relevant diagnostic criteria for developmental dysplasia of the hip: a study of British specialists

Criterion Mean (SD)
Physical Examination
  Ortolani test positive 9.1 (1.1)
  Barlow test positive 8.6 (1.8)
  Asymmetry in abduction ≥20° 8.4 (1.7)
  Abduction limited to ≤45° 7.9 (2.0)
  Leg-length discrepancy/Galeazzi sign 7.9 (2.7)
  Any asymmetry of hip abduction 7.8 (2.1)
  Abduction limited to ≤60° 6.4 (2.5)
  Torticollis 5.2 (2.7)
  Abduction limited to ≤70° 5.2 (2.8)
  Flexible foot deformities 5.0 (2.9)
  Congenital clubfoot or other fixed foot deformities 4.0 (2.8)
  Asymmetry of groin or skin crease(s) 3.2 (2.8)
  Hip click 2.5 (2.1)
Ultrasound
  Dislocatable hip (dynamic exam) 8.1 (2.5)
  α angle <45° (static exam) 7.7 (3.1)
  Femoral head displaced anatomically with no congruency on stress test 7.6 (3.2)
  α angle <50° (static exam) 7.2 (3.0)
  Femoral head coverage ≤45 % (static exam) 7.0 (2.8)
  α angle <55° (static exam) 6.4 (2.8)
  Femoral head coverage ≤50 % (static exam) 6.0 (2.8)
  α angle <60° (static exam) 5.4 (3.0)
  Displacement of femoral head >2 mm from medial aspect of acetabulum on dynamic exam 4.9 (3.2)
  Femoral head coverage ≤60 % (static exam) 4.3 (3.1)
  Femoral head coverage ≤70 % (static exam) 3.3 (3.1)
Patient characteristics and history
  First degree relative treated for DDH 7.4 (2.2)
  Breech presentation 7.2 (2.3)
  Breech positioning in-utero but born by vertex delivery 5.8 (2.8)
  Family history of DDH 5.7 (2.6)
  Oligohydramnios 4.5 (2.6)
  First born baby girl 4.4 (2.9)
  Female gender 4.2 (2.8)
  Birth weight >4000 g (8.8 lbs) 3.4 (2.5)
  Born by caesarian section 3.2 (2.6)
  Multiparous mother 3.1 (2.7)
Radiography
  Midpoint of the femoral metaphysis lateral to Perkins line 4.6 (3.5)
  Acetabular index >30° at 8 weeks 2.7 (2.8)
  Acetabular index >25°at 8 weeks 2.0 (2.3)