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Table 2 Gait Deviation Index, kinematics, joint kinetics, and time and distance parameters in groups

From: Gait dynamics in the wide spectrum of children with arthrogryposis: a descriptive study

  AMC 1 AMC 2 AMC 3 Control group P-value
  (n = 5) (n = 10) (n = 11) (n = 37) Kruskal-Wallis
Gait Deviation Index 51.0 [48.4, 59.5] A2, A3, C 76.7 [62.0, 83.1] A1, C 77.7 [70.1, 86.5] A1, C 98.5 [95.1, 106.0] A1, A2, A3 <0.001
Kinematics (°)      
Trunk      
Tilt ant (average) a) 1.6 [-1.9, 2.4] 0.4 [-1.7, 3.5] −1.4 [-5.7, 1.3] −0.8 [-4.9, 1.9] 0.372
Lateral sway (range) 16.4 [13.4, 26.0] A3, C 10.6 [6.6, 16.9] A3, C 4.8 [3.7, 7.5] A1, A2 4.3 [3.3, 5.3] A1, A2 <0.001
Rotation (range) 20.6 [17.7, 27.9] A3, C 13.9 [8.5, 22.5] A3, C 6.3 [5.2, 10.8] A1, A2 6.8 [5.2, 8.2] A1, A2 <0.001
Pelvis      
Tilt ant (average) 25.0 [21.8, 28.9] A2, C 15.8 [11.9, 21.8] A1, C 18.5 [14.0, 23.3] C 10.0 [7.0, 14.3] A1, A2, A3 <0.001
Elevation (range) 14.2 [9.5, 22.5] C 11.5 [7.9, 17.1] A3 7.6 [6.6, 9.0] A2 10.0 [7.0, 11.8] A1 0.030
Rotation (range) 31.9 [24.1, 39.3] A2, A3, C 17.4 [10.0, 23.4] A1 15.5 [13.9, 18.6] A1 15.1 [8.8, 19.6] A1 0.008
Hip      
Extension (max) −3.7 [-20.9, 0.4] C 2.0 [-4.5, 14.7] C −7.6 [-9.5, 7.1] C 12.5 [6.9, 16.7] A1, A2, A3 <0.001
Flexion (max in swing) 55.0 [49.5, 59.2] A2, A3, C 43.5 [36.5, 49.6] A1, C 47.1 [36.9, 49.8] A1, C 33.5 [29.9, 38.7] A1, A2, A3 <0.001
Abduction (max) 17.8 [16.3, 26.2] A2, A3, C 7.5 [5.8, 12.6] A1 8.0 [5.6, 13.5] A1 7.8 [5.4, 9.4] A1 0.004
Knee      
Flexion (initial contact) b) 17.3 [9.1, 23.9] A3, C 2.8 [-4.3, 15.1] 3.8 [-1.7, 12.1] A1 4.1 [2.2, 6.9] A1 0.038
Flexion (min in midstance) b) 15.9 [6.3, 24.0] C −2.0 [-8.2, 14.1] 6.8 [1.1, 17.6] C 1.0 [-3.6, 5.6] A1, A3 0.006
Flexion (max in swing) 17.9 [10.7, 25.3] A2, A3, C 59.8 [41.2, 64.7] A1 61.4 [58.6, 62.1] A1 58.3 [54.7, 62.6] A1 0.004
Ankle      
Dorsiflexion (max) 11.3 [9.7, 12.8] A3 13.9 [8.1, 19.1] 19.0 [15.7, 23.0] A1, C 13.2 [9.2, 15.9] A3 0.002
Plantarflexion (max) c) −4.6 [-6.7, -1.6] A2, A3, C 2.0 [-0.7, 7.3] A1, C 4.3 [-0.1, 11.1] A1, C 16.6 [12.7, 20.2] A1, A2, A3 <0.001
External foot progression (average) d) 25.2 [-3.1, 31.1] 0.7 [- 4.8, 8.6] 0.8 [-3.7, 9.3] 2.7 [0.0, 7.5] 0.163
Joint Moments (Nm/kg)      
Hip      
Flexion (max) 0.367 [0.236, 0.579] A2, A3, C 0.899 [0.684, 1.204] A1 0.954 [0.702, 1.009] A1 0.930 [0.780, 1.160] A1 0.006
Abduction (average stance) 0.176 [-0.054, 0.282] 0.224 [0.056, 0.372] 0.257 [0.203, 0.325] 0.301 [0.264, 0.393] 0.058
Knee      
Extension (max) 0.550 [0.351, 0.682] 0.529 [0.395, 0.795] 0.543 [0.471, 0.816] 0.565 [0.453, 0.713] 0.955
Flexion (max in mid-stance) 0.222 [0.064, 0.532] 0.235 [0.061, 0.412] 0.064 [-0.023, 0.226] C 0.300 [0.175, 0.408] A3 0.035
Valgus (average stance) 0.247 [-0.043, 0.262] 0.071 [0.020, 0.205] 0.143 [0.106, 0.184] 0.163 [0.108, 0.213] 0.196
Ankle      
Dorsiflexion (max) 0.437 [0.129, 0.494] 0.298 [0.218, 0.447] C 0.259 [0.180, 0.328] 0.200 [0.180, 0.252] A2 0.031
Plantarflexion (max) 1.127 [0.794, 1.250] C 1.112 [0.782, 1.275] C 1.260 [1.033, 1.558] 1.320 [1.195, 1.440] A1, A2 0.015
Work (J/kg)      
Hip      
Positive work 0.185 [0.127, 0.375] 0.284 [0.183, 0.397] C 0.218 [0.181, 0.348] C 0.170 [0.110, 0.210] A2, A3 0.008
Negative work 0.082 [0.041, 0.162] 0.171 [0.098, 0.191] 0.148 [0.049, 0.176] 0.130 [0.073, 0.180] 0.403
Knee      
Positive work 0.022 [0.013, 0.049] A2, A3, C 0.103 [0.049, 0.203] A1 0.089 [0.058, 0.157] A1 0.100 [0.060, 0.118] A1 0.014
Negative work 0.035 [0.021, 0.074] A2, A3, C 0.283 [0.214, 0.344] A1 0.276 [0.199, 0.339] A1 0.240 [0.150, 0.300] A1 0.001
Ankle      
Positive work 0.044 [0.023, 0.058] A2, A3, C 0.114 [0.085, 0.138] A1, A3, C 0.247 [0.199, 0.320] A1, A2 0.245 [0.163, 0.290] A1, A2 <0.001
Negative work 0.058 [0.024, 0.081] A2, A3 0.108 [0.075, 0.141] A1, A3 0.178 [0.117, 0.198] A1, A2, C 0.080 [0.053, 0.110] A3 <0.001
Time and distance      
N step length 0.72 [0.64, 0.91] 0.86 [0.77, 0.92] 0.80 [0.71, 0.85] 0.81 [0.75, 0.86] 0.186
N stride length 1.43 [1.31, 1.75] 1.71 [1.58, 1.92] 1.61 [1.47, 1.72] 1.64 [1.51, 1.72] 0.089
N cadence 0.41 [0.35, 0.49] A2, A3, C 0.56 [0.54, 0.59] A1 0.57 [0.55, 0.60] A1 0.59 [0.56, 0.64] A1 0.004
N walking speed 0.291 [0.239, 0.434] 0.498 [0.446, 0.523] 0.465 [0.408, 0.490] 0.500 [0.445, 0.525] 0.060
  1. Median [interquartile range] of Gait Deviation Index, trunk and pelvis kinematics, and lower limb joint angles, moments and work, and non-dimensionalized step length, stride length, cadence, and walking speed in AMC1, AMC2, AMC3 and in the control group. The text following the interquartile range indicates statistically significant difference from A1: AMC1, A2: AMC2, A3: AMC3 and C: the Control group according to post-hoc analysis with a Mann–Whitney U test
  2. a) - = posterior, b) - = extension, c) - = dorsiflexion, d) - = internal