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Table 1 Groups, orthoses, functional ambulation, joint contractures, muscle strength, and functional ambulation without orthoses

From: Gait dynamics in the wide spectrum of children with arthrogryposis: a descriptive study

Subject Group Orthoses Functional Joint contractures (°) Muscle strength (grade 0–5) Functional
    ambulation Hip Knee Plantar Hip Knee Ankle ambulation
     Flexion Flexion Flexion Flexion Extension Abduktion Extension Dorsiflexion Plantarflexion without
     L/R L/R L/R L/R L/R L/R L/R L/R L/R orthoses
1 AMC1 KAFO-LK III 10/20 30/30 20/20 4/4 3/1 3/3 2/2 0/0 0/0 V
2   KAFO-LK III 5/5 20/15 -/5 2/2 3/3 2/2 2/2 1/1 1/1 V
3   KAFO-LK-C III   20/+15b 40/50 3/3 4/4 4/4 3/3 0/0 0/0 V
4   KAFO-LK III   -/10 20/20 4/4 4/4 4/4 3/3 0/0 0/0 V
5   KAFO-LK-C III   30/30 25/25 3/3 4/4 4/4 3/3 1/1 1/1 V
6 AMC2 KAFO-O-C III   15/5 10/- 4/4 4/4 4/4 4/3 0/0 0/0 IV
7   AFO-H II -/5 +15/+10 5/- 4/4 4/4 4/4 5/5 3/4 4/4 II
8   AFO-FC II   +10/+10   4/4 4/4 4/4 4/4 4/4 3/3 III
9   AFO-S III   15/15   4/4 4/4 3/3 4/4 4/4 2/2 IV
10   KAFO-O-C II 5/- 10/5 15/- 4/4 4/4 4/4 4/4 1/1 2/2 III
11   AFO-H II 5/- +20/+20   4/4 4/4 4/4 4/4 4/4 2/2 III
12   AFO-Ca II   -/5 -/10 5/5 5/4 5/4 5/4 4/3 5/3 II
13   AFO-Sa II   -/5   4/4 4/4 4/4 5/5 5/3 5/3 II
14   AFO-C II     5/5 4/4 4/4 5/5 4/4 3/3 II
15   AFO-FC II   -/+10 20/- 5/5 4/4 4/4 4/4 2/2 2/2 II
16 AMC3 Shoes I 10/10    5/5 4/4 4/4 4/4 4/4 4/4 I
17   Shoes I   5/10   4/4 4/4 4/4 4/4 4/3 3/3 I
18   Shoes + FO I   5/- 10/- 5/5 4/4 4/4 4/4 4/4 4/4 I
19   Shoes I 10/10 +10/+20   5/5 4/4 5/5 5/5 5/5 5/5 I
20   Shoes I   +10/+10   5/5 5/5 4/4 5/5 4/4 5/5 I
21   Shoes I   +15/+15   5/5 4/4 4/4 4/4 4/4 4/4 I
22   Shoes I   -/5   5/5 5/5 5/5 5/5 4/4 5/5 I
23   Shoes + FO I   -/5   4/4 4/4 4/4 4/4 3/4 4/4 I
24   Shoes I -/10 5/5   5/5 5/5 5/5 4/4 4/4 4/4 I
25   Shoes I     5/5 5/5 5/5 4/4 4/4 4/4 I
26   Shoes I -/10 -/+10 5/- 4/4 5/5 5/5 4/4 4/4 5/5 I
  1. KAFO knee-ankle-foot orthosis, LK locked knee joint, C carbon fiber ankle joint, O open knee joint with extension stop, AFO ankle-foot orthosis, H hinged with restricted range of motion, FC flexible carbon fiber, S solid, FO foot orthosis, I community ambulators with no need for a wheelchair, II community ambulators who require a wheelchair for long distances outdoors only, III household ambulators and wheelchairs users outdoors and long distances indoors, IV household ambulators and wheelchair users both outdoors and indoors, V non-functional ambulation and wheelchair use for mobility, L left, R right
  2. + indicates hyperextension
  3. a unilaterally
  4. b hyperextension is prevented by orthosis