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Table 3 Univariate linear regression analyses as measured by max scores, subdivided by radiculopathy

From: Back pain was less explained than leg pain: a cross-sectional study using magnetic resonance imaging in low back pain patients with and without radiculopathy

   Back + leg pain (N = 134) Back pain (N = 135) Leg pain (N = 137)
MRI variable n (%) β (95 % CI) p β (95 % CI) p β (95 % CI) p
Osteophytesa     0.003*    0.810*    <0.001*
  Absent 45 (32) ref.    ref.    ref.   
  Present           
  –radiculopathy 48 (34) −2.52 (−7.64, 2.59) 0.331 0.19 (−2.60, 2.99) 0.892 −2.52 (−5.74, 0.71) 0.125
  +radiculopathy 48 (34) 6.00 (0.78, 11.2) 0.025 −0.68 (−3.54, 2.19) 0.641 7.00 (3.72, 10.3) <0.001
High intensity zone     0.034*    0.528*    <0.001*
  Absent 42 (30) ref.    ref.    ref.   
  Present           
  –radiculopathy 43 (31) −0.33 (−5.52, 4.48) 0.899 0.05 (−2.74, 2.85) 0.970 0.34 (−3.64, 2.97) 0.841
  +radiculopathy 56 (40) 5.63 (0.52, 10.7) 0.031 −1.30 (−4.04, 1.44) 0.348 7.15 (3.90, 10.4) <0.001
Protrusion/herniata.     0.116*    0.228*    <0.001*
  Absent 15 (11) ref.    ref.    ref.   
  Bulging           
  –radiculopathy 18 (13) −4.76 (−13.2, 3.71) 0.268 −0.71 (−5.23, 3.81) 0.755 −4.43 (−9.74, 0.89) 0.102
  +radiculopathy 5 (4) 9.26 (−3.16, 21.6) 0.143 3.67 (−2.95, 10.3) 0.275 5.67 (−2.23, 13.6) 0.158
  Protrusion           
    Broad           
  –radiculopathy 6 (4) −4.31 (−15.6, 6.95) 0.450 −0.71 (−6.71, 5.29) 0.815 −3.59 (−10.8, 3.57) 0.323
  +radiculopathy 1 (1) 9.37 (−15.2, 33.9) 0.451 5.32 (−7.76, 18.4) 0.422 4.14 (−11.5, 19.7) 0.601
    Focal           
  –radiculopathy 29 (21) 0.43 (−7.15, 8.01) 0.910 2.20 (−1.84, 6.24) 0.283 −1.74 (−6.56, 3.08) 0.477
  +radiculopathy 19 (13) 7.40 (−0.95, 15.8) 0.082 0.55 (−3.90, 5.00) 0.806 6.87 (1.56, 12.2) 0.012
 Extrusion           
  –radiculopathy 12 (9) 0.62 (−8.82, 10.1) 0.897 −1.29 (−6.33, 3.74) 0.613 0.78 (−5.09, 6.64) 0.793
  +radiculopathy 28 (20) 2.51 (−5.45, 10.5) 0.533 −2.77 (−6.97, 1.43) 0.193 5.21 (0.16, 10.2) 0.043
 Sequestration           
  –radiculopathy 0
  +radiculopathy 8 (6) 7.39 (−3.91, 18.7) 0.198 −1.47 (−7.49, 4.55) 0.630 8.89 (1.71, 16.1) 0.016
MRI nerve root sign     0.033*    0.056*    <0.001*
 No touch 52 (37) ref.    ref.    ref.   
  Touch           
  –radiculopathy 19 (13) −2.62 (−8.84, 3.60) 0.406 0.78 (−2.52, 4.09) 0.639 −3.17 (−7.19, 0.86) 0.122
  +radiculopathy 12 (9) 13.0 (5.18, 20.8) 0.001 3.52 (−0.62, 7.66) 0.095 9.73 (4.68, 14.8) <0.001
 Displacement           
  –radiculopathy 15 (11) 1.18 (−6.02, 8.39) 0.745 −0.09 (−3.92, 3.73) 0.961 0.62 (−3.92, 5.15) 0.789
  +radiculopathy 22 (16) 4.08 (−2.10, 10.3) 0.194 −1.51 (−4.79, 1.78) 0.365 5.90 (1.91, 9.90) 0.004
 Compression           
  –radiculopathy 3 (2) −1.50 (−15.3, 12.3) 0.831 −0.61 (−7.96, 6.75) 0.871 0.60 (−9.58, 8.38) 0.895
  +radiculopathy 18 (13) 2.18 (−4.92, 9.29) 0.544 −4.53 (−8.18, −0.87) 0.016 6.86 (2.36, 11.4) 0.003
Spinal stenosis b     0.198*    0.532*    0.084*
 Absent 123 (87) ref.    ref.    ref.   
 Present           
  –radiculopathy 7 (5) −2.77 (−12.9, 7.37) 0.590 0.56 (−4.83, 5.95) 0.837 −4.54 (−11.0, 1.93) 0.167
  +radiculopathy 11 (8) 6.62 (−1.29, 15.5) 0.100 2.39 (−1.82, 6.60) 0.263 4.39 (−1.01, 9.79) 0.110
  1. β regression coefficient; CI confidence interval; ref reference. P-values less than 0.05 indicated by Italics
  2. Back + leg pain, back pain and leg pain intensity were dependent variables, all analyses adjusted for age and sex. The numbers in subgroups not adjusted for missing values
  3. The estimates for small subgroups (<5) should not be considered reliable
  4. *Overall p by Wald’s test
  5. aThe highest adj. R2 = 0.22 (leg pain), the second highest disc herniation (leg pain): 0.19
  6. b‘Relative and severe’ collapsed because of small number of ‘severe’