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Table 2 Rotation is described by the 3D angle (axis-angle representation) and by Euler rotations around the anatomical coordinate system. Translation is given with respect to the anatomical coordinate system. Mean and standard deviation (SD) are based on absolute values

From: Three-dimensional postoperative accuracy of extra-articular forearm osteotomies using CT-scan based patient-specific surgical guides

   Planned Correction Residual error
    Rotation (°) Translation (mm)   Rotation (°) Translation (mm)
  Patient 3D angle Flexion/Extension Ulnar/Radial Pronation/Supination Palmar/Dorsal Ulnar/Radial Distal/Proximal 3D angle Flexion/Extension Ulnar/Radial Pronation/Supination Palmar/Dorsal Ulnar/Radial Distal/Proximal
Group I 1 12.42 11.99 1.24 −3.14 −0.15 −0.09 −2.17 4.46 2.07 3.53 −1.82 −0.80 −0.27 0.99
  29.57 −4.89 −4.63 28.61 0.75 0.95 0.69 4.56 −2.50 1.83 3.38 −1.32 −0.99 0.61
2 25.51 20.51 15.00 1.18 −2.81 −2.03 −8.43 4.92 −1.50 1.67 4.40 1.42 0.04 −5.10
  14.24 −9.28 5.75 −8.70 0.38 −3.03 −1.43 3.88 −0.29 0.46 −3.84 −0.39 −2.17 −4.79
3 18.04 14.16 −0.16 11.22 −0.51 −0.47 −1.59 1.49 −0.64 −1.34 −0.14 −0.30 0.14 0.10
4 12.15 11.72 3.19 −0.60 −0.20 −0.14 −1.21 3.16 −2.56 0.12 1.85 0.28 1.06 0.37
5 13.71 −10.06 9.35 1.04 −0.45 0.37 −1.15 3.14 −0.49 1.92 2.44 0.67 0.19 0.47
6 25.61 0.86 −3.21 −25.37 0.15 0.18 −0.22 2.72 −1.29 0.98 2.20 0.10 −0.44 −0.50
7 28.20 0.27 −1.07 28.18 −0.09 0.10 0.01 2.87 1.27 2.15 −1.43 −0.09 −0.79 0.38
Mean 19.94 9.31 4.85 12.00 0.61 0.82 1.88 3.47 1.40 1.56 2.39 0.60 0.68 1.48
SD 7.21 6.47 4.73 12.11 0.85 1.04 2.55 1.09 0.84 1.01 1.31 0.50 0.68 1.98
Group II 8 22.79 19.33 10.98 −7.39 −1.66 1.16 5.31 7.94 4.90 2.33 −5.90 0.10 1.79 0.86
9 10.49 5.78 8.76 −0.71 0.55 0.36 7.66 4.76 3.63 0.56 −3.05 −1.99 −0.31 1.60
10 28.26 24.34 −9.81 12.96 −0.54 0.81 9.08 17.51 13.08 −3.74 11.50 −0.92 −1.66 1.44
11 35.39 7.42 32.61 9.84 0.09 1.15 17.93 12.47 4.06 10.86 4.25 −1.56 −1.21 2.17
12 23.58 −10.46 −19.88 5.70 0.09 0.72 5.81 9.38 −2.24 −9.11 −0.21 1.70 1.14 −0.44
13 33.65 −12.59 −16.12 −28.73 1.13 1.50 1.93 3.36 −0.36 −0.55 −3.29 −0.90 −1.08 0.08
14 8.57 −2.51 0.48 8.19 4.43 4.57 1.83 2.70 1.14 2.44 −0.18 0.14 −0.35 0.53
Mean 23.25 10.34 12.46 12.71 1.07 1.30 6.20 8.30 3.84 3.97 3.73 0.94 1.04 0.94
SD 10.48 7.73 10.18 8.87 1.53 1.42 5.49 5.35 4.23 4.12 3.88 0.75 0.57 0.74
  1. The bold values are based on absolute values