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Table 4 Antibodies in pre-RA cases stratified by smoking (never/former/current). Cut-offs are based on the 98th percentile of controls with the exception of anti-CCP2 antibodies where the manufacturer’s cut-off was applied, and RF where a titre of 1:40 was considered positive. Ever RF refers to subjects who are known to be RF positive through testing of pre-RA serum or through their post-diagnosis medical records. RF; rheumatoid factor. CEP1, cFib and cVim; citrullinated peptides from α-enolase, fibrinogen and vimentin respectively. REP1, Fib and Vim are the arginine-containing control peptides. CPP3 and CPP5 are immunodominant peptides from PPAD, and RPP3 and RPP5 are the arginine-containing control peptides. RgpB; arginine gingipain

From: Smoking, Porphyromonas gingivalis and the immune response to citrullinated autoantigens before the clinical onset of rheumatoid arthritis in a Southern European nested case–control study

    pre-RA  
  Antibodies Never smokers Former smokers Current smokers
   n = 36 n = 28 n = 37
RF n (%) 7 (19) 9 (32) 7 (19)
‘Ever’RF n (%) 20 (56) 15 (54) 26 (70)
CCP2 (u/ml), median (IQR) 1.17 (0–59) 1.74 (0–300) 1.26 (0–300)
n (%) 7 (19) 11 (39)* 7 (19)
CEP1 (u/ml), median IQR 4.51 (2.22–69) 15.5 (4.20–355) 3.70 (2.99–152)
n (%) 4 (11) 9 (32)* 2 (5)
REP1 (OD), median (IQR) 0.13 (0.07–0.55) 0.094 (0.05–0.36) 0.076 (0.052–0.27)
n (%) 2 (6) 0 (0) 0 (0)
cFib (u/ml), median IQR 2.53 (1.11–77.24) 3.93 (1.30-320) 1.61 (0.94–217)
n (%) 5 (14) 11 (39) 3 (8)
Fib (OD), median IQR 0.08 (0.06-0.27) 0.09 (0.06–0.26) 0.08 (0.05–0.25)
n (%) 1 (3) 0 (0) 1 (3)
cVim (u/ml), median IQR 14.26 (8.71–114) 29.2 (5.71–401) 16.3 (8.7–240)
n (%) 1 (4) 2 (8) 2 (8)
Vim (u/ml), median IQR 8.25 (4.70–26) 8.20 (5.83–24.3) 7.4 (4.6–44.5)
n (%) 1 (3) 0 (0) 3 (9)
CPP3 (OD), median IQR 0.08 (0.05–0.76) 0.14 (0.08–0.79) 0.10 (0.06–0.33)
n (%) 1 (3) 1 (4) 0 (0)
RPP3 (OD), median IQR 0.09 (0.06–0.80) 0.13 (0.09–0.94) 0.13 (0.06–0.36)
n (%) 3 (8) 2 (7) 0 (0)
CPP5 (u/ml), median IQR 26.8 (14.62–71.48) 52.15 (25.66–122) 39.3 (28.3–60.19)
n (%) 1 (3) 1 (4) 3 (8)
RPP5 (OD), median IQR 27.6 (16.17–35.15) 42.52 (26.8–69.6) 40 (20.99–51.96)
n (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (5)
RgpB (u/ml), median (IQR) 1191 (599–1444) 1555 (966–2560) 948 (553–1976)
n (%) 1 (3) 2 (7) 0 (0)
categories, n (%)
1 (<1280) 18 (50) 10 (36) 21 (57)
2 (≥1280) 11 (31) 10 (36) 8 (22)
3 (≥2560) 6 (17) 6 (21) 8 (22)
4 (≥5120) 1 (3) 2 (7) 0 (0)
Duration of smoking (years), median (IQR) - 21 (14–29) 26 (21–34)**
Number of cigarettes/day, median (IQR) - 9 (6–18) 13 (8–17)
Time since quitting (years), median (IQR) - 10 (3–16) -
  1. *p<0.05; **P<0.01