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Table 3 Association of former and current smoking with RA: conditional logistic regression models

From: Smoking, Porphyromonas gingivalis and the immune response to citrullinated autoantigens before the clinical onset of rheumatoid arthritis in a Southern European nested case–control study

  Controls Pre-RA Univariate   Multivariate  
    OR (95 % CI) p-value OR (95 % CI)a p-value
Intensity, n (%)       
Model 1       
Never 133 (44) 36 (36) reference - reference -
Former 59 (19) 28 (28) 1.90 (1.01–3.59) 0.047 2.48 (1.27–4.84) 0.008
Current 80 (26) 30 (30) 1.45 (0.81–2.56) 0.205 1.57 (0.85–2.93) 0.151
Model 2       
Never 133 (43) 36 (35) reference - reference -
Current, 1–15 cig/day 39 (13) 20 (20) 1.88 (0.98–3.61) 0.059 2.16 (1.06–4.39) 0.034
Current, >16 cig/day 41 (10) 10 (10) 0.95 (0.42–2.13) 0.905 0.97 (0.43–2.28) 0.974
Former, quit ≤10 years 27 (9) 16 (16) 2.18 (1.04–4.55) 0.039 2.79 (1.29–6.07) 0.009
Former, quit >11 years 32 (11) 12 (12) 1.50 (0.66–3.41) 0.328 2.02 (0.84–4.89) 0.115
Current pipe/cigar/occasional 31 (10) 7 (7) 0.93 (0.36–2.41) 0.888 1.24 (0.46–3.34) 0.670
  1. a Models adjusted for BMI, waist circumference, level of education, physical activity index, and alcohol intake