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Table 1 Characteristics of study population (n = 669)

From: A screening tool for non-specific low back pain with disability in office workers: a 1-year prospective cohort study

Characteristics N (%) Mean ± SD
Demographic characteristics   
Gender   
 Male 168 (25.1)  
 Female 501 (74.9)  
Age (years)   35.7 ± 8.3
 20–29 189 (28.2)  
 30–39 265 (39.6)  
 40–49 161 (24.1)  
  ≥ 50 54 (8.1)  
Education   
 Lower than Bachelor’s degree 83 (12.4)  
 Bachelor’s degree 478 (71.5)  
 Higher than Bachelor’s degree 108 (16.1)  
Exercise frequency in the past 12 months   
 Never 158 (23.6)  
 Occasionally 429 (64.1)  
 Regularly 72 (10.8)  
 Not sure 10 (1.5)  
History of LBP   
 Yes 525 (78.5)  
 No 144 (21.5)  
Occupational-related characteristics   
 Duration of employment (years)   10.7 ± 8.5
 Working hours per day (hours per day)   7.9 ± 1.1
 Working days per week (days per week)   5.0 ± 0.5
 Frequent rest break   
  Yes 543 (81.2)  
  No 126 (18.8)  
Psychosocial characteristics   
 Job control   35.0 ± 4.4
 Psychological demand   32.3 ± 4.4
 Physical demand   13.4 ± 2.6
 Job security   16.4 ± 1.9
 Social support   30.6 ± 4.6
 Hazards at work   16.7 ± 3.6
Physical characteristics   
 Weight (kg)   60.3 ± 13.9
 Height (cm)   160.1 ± 7.3
Body mass index (kg/m2) 70 (10.5)  
  < 18.5 kg/m2 409 (61.1)  
 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 126 (18.8)  
 25–29.9 kg/m2 64 (9.6)  
 30 kg/m2   
Waist circumference   77.7 ± 11.3
Trunk extension flexibility (cm)   13.0 ± 0.8
Erector spinae and multifidus endurance (s)   71.7 ± 38.0