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Table 4 Odds ratios for RLS diagnosis with musculoskeletal pain variables as the input variablea

From: Musculoskeletal pain is associated with restless legs syndrome in young adults

  Unadjusted Adjusted for sex Adjusted for sex and DASS-21 Adjusted for sex, DASS-21 and sleep quality
Any body pain n = 1072 n = 1072 n = 1047 n = 1030
 No REF REF REF REF
 Yes 3.3 (1.5–7.2)** 3.1 (1.5–6.7)** 2.8 (1.2–6.6)* 3.0 (1.3–7.1)*
Pain duration n = 1071 n = 1071 n = 1046 n = 1029
 No pain REF REF REF REF
 Short duration 2.1 (0.6–7.4) 2.0 (0.6–7.1) 1.9 (0.6–6.4) 2.2 (0.6–7.7)
 Long duration 4.1 (1.8–9.3)** 3.8 (1.7–8.6)** 3.3 (1.4–7.5)** 3.6 (1.4–9.2)**
Pain intensity last week n = 1067 n = 1067 n = 1044 n = 1027
 No pain REF REF REF REF
 Mild pain 2.9 (1.1–7.4)* 2.7 (1.1–7.0)* 2.7 (1.0–7.0)* 3.0 (1.0–8.2)*
 Moderate pain 4.1 (1.6–10.7)** 4.0 (1.6–10.2)** 3.3 (1.1–10.1)* 3.6 (1.1–12.3)*
 Severe pain 3.3 (0.9–12.1) 2.8 (0.8–10.4) 2.7 (0.8–9.4) 2.9 (0.8–10.0)
Pain intensity last 3 months n = 1067 n = 1067 n = 1044 n = 1027
 No pain REF REF REF REF
 Mild pain 1.9 (0.6–5.6) 1.8 (0.6–5.4) 1.6 (0.6–5.0) 1.8 (0.6–5.4)
 Moderate pain 3.0 (0.9–9.9) 2.9 (0.9–9.3) 2.5 (0.9–7.4) 2.8 (0.8–10.0)
 Severe pain 3.9 (1.3–11.5)* 3.5 (1.2–10.3)* 3.0 (1.0–8.6)* 3.2 (0.9–10.6)
Pain frequency last 3 months n = 1067 n = 1067 n = 1044 n = 1027
 No pain REF REF REF REF
 Low 2.1 (0.7–5.8) 2.0 (0.7–5.7) 1.9 (0.7–5.4) 2.1 (0.7–6.5)
 Moderate 4.1 (1.3–13.1)* 3.8 (1.2–12.2)* 3.5 (1.2–10.4)* 3.9 (1.2–12.7)*
 High 3.8 (1.4–10.4)** 3.4 (1.3–9.4)* 2.9 (1.0–8.8) 3.2 (1.0–10.4)
Number of pain sites n = 1072 n = 1072 n = 1047 n = 1030
 No pain REF REF REF REF
 One site 2.9 (1.2–7.3)* 2.8 (1.1–7.1)* 2.8 (0.9–8.4) 3.1 (1.1–8.5)*
 Two sites 3.1 (0.9–10.0) 2.9 (0.9–9.1) 2.4 (0.7–7.8) 2.6 (0.8–8.9)
 Three or more 6.1 (2.0–18.5)** 5.5 (1.8–16.9)** 4.5 (1.4–15.3)* 4.9 (1.6–14.6)**
  1. aOdds ratios are given with 95 % Confidence Intervals. The DASS-21 total score showed strong correlation with the three subscales and was used as a continuous covariate in the multivariable logistic regression analysis. * = p <0.05; ** = p <0.01. RLS restless legs syndrome, DASS-21 Depression-, Anxiety and Stress Scale
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