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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population (n = 1072)a

From: Musculoskeletal pain is associated with restless legs syndrome in young adults

  Reference group (n = 1040) RLS-diagnosis group (n = 32) Total (n = 1072) p-value (for trend)
Sex     0.096
 Female 560 (53.8 %) 22 (68.8 %) 582 (54.3 %)  
 Male 480 (46.2 %) 10 (31.2 %) 490 (45.7 %)  
Smoking 167 (16.1 %) 6 (18.8 %) 173 (16.2 %) 0.693
Mean Body Mass Index (kg/m2) (SD) 25.2 (5.5) 25.1 (4.4) 25.2 (5.5) 0.936
Sleep Quality     0.105 (0.023)
 Very good 160 (15.7 %) 3 (9.7 %) 163 (15.5 %)  
 Fairly good 619 (60.6 %) 15 (48.4 %) 634 (60.3 %)  
 Fairly bad 217 (21.3 %) 11 (35.5 %) 228 (21.7 %)  
 Very bad 25 (2.4 %) 2 (6.5 %) 27 (2.6 %)  
Mean DASS-21 scores (SD)     
 Depression Subscale 6.8 (8.2) 12.0 (11.5) 7.0 (8.4) 0.017
 Anxiety Subscale 4.7 (5.7) 10.0 (8.0) 4.9 (5.8) 0.001
 Stress Subscale 9.0 (8.1) 15.5 (11.0) 9.3 (8.3) 0.002
 Total score 20.5 (19.5) 37.0 (28.3) 21.0 (20.0) 0.003
Any pain 380 (36.5 %) 21 (65.6 %) 401 (37.4 %) 0.001 (0.001)
Duration of pain     0.001 (<0.001)
 No pain 660 (63.5 %) 11 (34.4 %) 671 (62.7 %)  
 Short duration 143 (13.8 %) 5 (15.6 %) 148 (13.8 %)  
 Long duration 236 (22.7 %) 16 (50.0 %) 252 (23.5 %)  
Pain intensity last week     0.007 (0.001)
 No pain 670 (64.7 %) 11 (35.5 %) 681 (63.8 %)  
 Mild pain 192 (18.5 %) 9 (29.0 %) 201 (18.8 %)  
 Moderate pain 118 (11.4 %) 8 (25.8 %) 126 (11.8 %)  
 Severe pain 56 (5.4 %) 3 (9.7 %) 59 (5.5 %)  
Pain intensity last 3 months     0.016 (0.001)
 No pain 682 (65.8 %) 13 (41.9 %) 695 (65.1 %)  
 Mild pain 169 (16.3 %) 6 (19.4 %) 175 (16.4 %)  
 Moderate pain 105 (10.1 %) 6 (19.4 %) 111 (10.4 %)  
 Severe pain 80 (7.7 %) 6 (19.4 %) 86 (8.1 %)  
Pain frequency last 3 months     0.006 (0.001)
 No pain 683 (65.9 %) 12 (38.7 %) 695 (65.1 %)  
 Low 164 (15.8 %) 6 (19.4 %) 170 (15.9 %)  
 Medium 84 (8.1 %) 6 (19.4 %) 90 (8.4 %)  
 High 105 (10.1 %) 7 (22.6 %) 112 (10.5 %)  
Number of pain sites     0.005 (0.001)
 No pain 660 (63.5 %) 11 (34.4 %) 671 (62.6 %)  
 One 165 (15.9 %) 8 (25.0 %) 173 (16.1 %)  
 Two 106 (10.2 %) 5 (15.6 %) 111 (10.4 %)  
 Three or more 109 (10.5 %) 8 (25.0 %) 117 (10.9 %)  
  1. aMean values with standard deviation provided for continuous data; numbers with percentages are provided for categorical data. Pearson’s Chi square test and Chi square test for trend were used for comparisons of categorical data, independent samples t-tests for continuous data. Significant p-values are highlighted in bold. DASS-21 Depression-, Anxiety and Stress Scale, RLS restless legs syndrome, SD standard deviation
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