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Table 2 Description of the MPI-scales [29]

From: Psychological and behavioral differences between low back pain populations: a comparative analysis of chiropractic, primary and secondary care patients

Dimension MPI-scales Description
Psychological Pain severity (PS) Perceived pain severity and suffering
Interference (I) Perceived pain related life interference, including interference with family and marital functioning, work and work-related activities, and social-recreational activities.
Life control (LC) Perceived life control, incorporating the perceived ability to solve problems and feelings of personal mastery and competence.
Affective distress (AD) Ratings of depressed mood, irritability and tension.
Support (S) Appraisal of support received from spouse, family and significant others - such as worrying, being supportive and attentive.
Behavioral Punishing responses (PR) Perceived range and frequency of responses (behaviors) by significant others to displays of pain and suffering by showing frustration, irritation, anger and ignorance.
Solicitous responses (SR) Perceived range and frequency of responses (behaviors) by significant others to displays of pain and suffering by helping with medication, food, chores and rest.
Distracting responses (DR) Perceived range and frequency of responses (behaviors) by significant others to displays of pain and suffering by such things as involving them in activities, taking their mind off their pain and encouraging them to focus on things other than their pain experience.
  1. MPI The Multi-dimensional Pain Inventory