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Table 1 Eligibility criteria

From: Psychological and behavioral differences between low back pain populations: a comparative analysis of chiropractic, primary and secondary care patients

Sample Eligibility criteria
Sample A (primary care, Chiropractic) Inclusion Low back pain 18–65 years of age.
Exclusion Verified pregnancy. Serious spinal pathology.
Sample B (primary care, sick listed with risk of chronicity) Inclusion Subjects who were considered at high risk of developing chronic disabling low back pain and/or neck pain and long term sick leave using an extensive risk assessment tool.
    -         Ongoing sick-listing ≥ 2 months due to low back pain and/or neck pain and no rehabilitation during this sick-listing period.
              Alternatively
    -         Recurrent pain and pain at time of examination and sick-listed due to low back pain and/or neck pain ≥ 1 time during the previous year or currently sick-listed due to low back pain and/or neck pain < 2 months.
Exclusion Serious spinal pathology.
Sample C (secondary care, multimodal single-center) Inclusion LBP and/or NP.
Cumulative sick-listing for a total of one month to six months during past year (due to low back pain and/or neck pain).
Fluency in Swedish.
Exclusion Previous rehabilitation at the clinic.
Verified pregnancy.
Serious spinal pathology.
Sample D (secondary care, multimodal multi-center) Inclusion Nonspecific spinal pain.
Current and continuous sick-listing for at least one month and a maximum of six months before inclusion (due to low back pain and/or neck pain).
Fluency in Swedish.
Exclusion Exposure to physical trauma 6 prior to examination.
Objective neurological signs indicating need for surgery.
Co-morbidities (e.g. alcohol abuse, acute psychosis)
Ongoing rehabilitation.
Verified pregnancy.
Serious spinal pathology.