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Table 2 Perioperative stroke following elective spinal surgery

From: Perioperative stroke in patients undergoing elective spinal surgery: a retrospective analysis using the Japanese diagnosis procedure combination database

  Perioperative stroke (N (%))
Overall p-value* Hemorrhagic Ischemic
Total 371 (0.2) (0.22)   53 (0.03) 318 (0.19)
Age, years    <0.001     
 ≤49 15 (0.06)   6 (0.02) 9 (0.03)
 50–59 29 (0.12)   8 (0.03) 21 (0.09)
 60–69 85 (0.19)   14 (0.03) 71 (0.16)
 70–79 156 (0.29)   18 (0.03) 138 (0.26)
 ≥80 86 (0.50)   7 (0.04) 79 (0.46)
Sex    0.23     
 Male 207 (0.21)   30 (0.03) 177 (0.18)
 Female 164 (0.24)   23 (0.03) 141 (0.21)
Surgical procedures    <0.001     
 Resection of spinal cord tumor 19 (0.37)   7 (0.13) 12 (0.23)
 Discectomy 16 (0.07)   6 (0.02) 10 (0.04)
 Decompression surgery 193 (0.23)   18 (0.02) 175 (0.21)
 Arthrodesis surgery 143 (0.27)   22 (0.04) 121 (0.23)
Cervical spinal surgery 99 (0.28) 0.008 13 (0.04) 86 (0.25)
 Others 272 (0.21)   40 (0.03) 232 (0.18)
History of cardiac disease 60 (0.49) <0.001 6 (0.05) 54 (0.44)
 No history 311 (0.20)   47 (0.03) 264 (0.17)
Diabetes 110 (0.41) <0.001 9 (0.03) 101 (0.37)
 No history 261 (0.19)   44 (0.03) 217 (0.15)
Hypertension 129 (0.39) <0.001 17 (0.05) 112 (0.34)
 No history 242 (0.18)   36 (0.03) 206 (0.15)
History of stroke 5 (0.13) 0.29 1 (0.03) 4 (0.11)
 No history 366 (0.22)   52 (0.03) 314 (0.19)
Hemodialysis 15 (0.45) 0.01 4 (0.12) 11 (0.33)
 No hemodialysis 356 (0.22)   49 (0.03) 307 (0.20)
Blood transfusion 52 (0.50) <0.001 9 (0.09) 43 (0.41)
 No transfusion 319 (0.20)   44 (0.03) 275 (0.18)
Teaching institution 107 (0.30) 0.001 17 (0.05) 90 (0.25)
 Non-teaching institution 264 (0.20)   36 (0.03) 228 (0.17)
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