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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population according to surgical procedures (N (%))

From: Perioperative stroke in patients undergoing elective spinal surgery: a retrospective analysis using the Japanese diagnosis procedure combination database

  Overall (N = 167,106) Resection of spinal cord tumor (N = 5187) Discectomy (N = 24,595) Decompression surgery (N = 84,540) Arthrodesis surgery (N = 52,784) p-valuea
Age, years; mean [SD] 64.1 [14.3] 57.1 [15.8] 50.2 [17.0] 68.2 [11.3] 64.8 [12.8] <0.001
 ≤49 26,449 (15.8) 1607 (31.0) 12,395 (50.4) 5663 (6.7) 6784 (12.9) <0.001
 50–59 24,253 (14.5) 993 (19.1) 4088 (16.6) 10,937 (12.9) 8235 (15.6)  
 60–69 45,030 (26.9) 1307 (25.2) 4269 (17.4) 23,881 (28.2) 15,573 (29.5)  
 70–79 54,107 (32.4) 1011 (19.5) 2902 (11.8) 32,353 (38.3) 17,841 (33.8)  
 ≥80 17,267 (10.3) 269 (5.2) 941 (3.8) 11,706 (13.8) 4351 (8.2)  
Sex
 Male 98,445 (58.9) 2590 (49.9) 15,866 (64.5) 53,808 (63.6) 26,181 (49.6) <0.001
 Female 68,661 (41.1) 2597 (50.1) 8729 (35.5) 30,732 (36.4) 26,603 (50.4)  
Level of surgery
 Cervical 35,042 (21.0) 564 (10.9) 357 (1.5) 24,596 (29.1) 9525 (18.0) <0.001
 Thoracic 3582 (2.1) 465 (9.0) 345 (1.4) 822 (1.0) 1950 (3.7)  
 Lumbosacral 10,9669 (65.6) 884 (17.0) 23,266 (94.6) 50,326 (59.5) 35,193 (66.7)  
 Unspecified 18,813 (11.3) 3274 (63.1) 627 (2.5) 8796 (10.4) 6116 (11.6)  
History of cardiac disease 12,332 (7.4) 180 (3.5) 833 (3.4) 7356 (8.7) 3963 (7.5) <0.001
Diabetes 27,052 (16.2) 453 (8.7) 2367 (9.6) 15,925 (18.8) 8307 (15.7) <0.001
Hypertension 32,753 (19.6) 740 (14.3) 2511 (10.2) 18,947 (22.4) 10,555 (20.0) <0.001
History of stroke 3807 (2.3) 70 (1.3) 217 (0.9) 2337 (2.8) 1183 (2.2) <0.001
Hemodialysis 3340 (2.0) 65 (1.3) 147 (0.6) 1638 (1.9) 1490 (2.8) <0.001
Blood transfusion 10,382 (6.2) 265 (5.1) 100 (0.4) 2091 (2.5) 7926 (15.0) <0.001
Teaching institution 35,821 (21.4) 2891 (55.7) 3185 (12.9) 16,652 (19.7) 13,093 (24.8) <0.001
Length of stay, days, median [IQR] 21 [16–30] 23 [17–33] 16 [12–22] 21 [16–28] 25 [19–37] <0.001
  1. ap-value relating to comparison between four groups including resection of spinal cord tumor, discectomy, decompression surgery, and arthrodesis surgery
  2. SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range
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