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Table 4 Overall level of evidence for prognostic factors and their association with outcome

From: Pain intensity, neck pain and longer duration of complaints predict poorer outcome in patients with shoulder pain – a systematic review

Prognostic factor assessed at baseline Outcome QS > 60 % QS ≤ 60 % Level of evidence
Primary care     
Higher shoulder pain intensity [5, 14, 15, 18, 22] Poorer 4/5 Strong
Better 1/5
Concomitant neck pain [5, 15, 18] Poorer 3/3 Strong
Longer duration of symptoms [14, 15, 18, 22, 23] Poorer 4/4 1/1 Strong
Precipitating cause (trauma) [5, 15] Better 1/2 Inconclusive
  No association 1/2  
Greater disability [14, 15, 18, 22, 23] Poorer 2/4 1/1 Inconclusive
No association 2/4
Previous episode of pain [14, 15, 23] Poorer 1/1 Inconclusive
No association 2/2
Female gender [5, 14, 15, 18, 22] Better 1/5 Inconclusive
Poorer 1/5
No association 3/5
Gradual onset [14, 15, 18, 22] Poorer 2/4 Inconclusive
No association 2/4
Secondary care     
Greater disability [11, 17, 24, 25] Poorer 2/2 1/2 Strong
  Better 1/2  
No previous shoulder pain [11, 17] Better 2/2 Strong
Higher education [11, 25] Better 1/1 1/1 Moderate
Gradual onset [24, 26, 27] Poorer 1/3 Inconclusive
  No association 2/3  
Long duration of complaints [11, 24, 2628] Poorer 2/4 Inconclusive
No association 1/1 2/4
Non-dominant side involved [24, 2628] Better 1/4 Inconclusive
No association 3/4
Diagnosis (large tear) [17, 24, 25, 29] Poorer 1/3 Inconclusive
No association 1/1 2/3
Physical workload (manual work) [11, 28] Poorer 1/1 Inconclusive
No association 1/1
Health status [11, 17] Better 1/2 Inconclusive
No association 1/2
Occupational setting     
Longer duration of symptoms [16, 30] Poorer 2/2 Inconclusive
Higher age [12, 13, 16, 31, 32] Poorer 2/2 1/3 Inconclusive
No association   2/3
Female gender [12, 13, 16, 32] Better 1/3 Inconclusive
Poorer 1/3
No association 1/1 1/3
Work related psychosocial factors [16, 31, 32] Poorer 2/2 Inconclusive
  No association 1/1  
High physical workload [13, 16, 3034] Poorer 1/2 1/5 Inconclusive
No association 1/2 3/5
Sporting activities [13, 16, 31, 32, 34] Better 1/3 Inconclusive
Poorer 1/2
No association 1/2 2/3
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