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Table 2 Values of ankle and knee rotation for each phase of gait cycle in the ACLR group

From: Three-dimensional kinematic analysis of ankle, knee, hip, and pelvic rotation during gait in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction - early results

  Rotation for subsequent phases of the gait cycle First measurement Second measurement Third measurement ANOVA
Ankle KHS Operated leg −11.4 ± 6.61 −7.81 ± 11.82 −9.69 ± 8.38 0.285
Un-operated leg −10.53 ± 8.71 −11.54 ± 6.03 −10.12 ± 7.55 0.741
P 0.948 0.076 0.799  
K1 Operated leg −13.18 ± 7.30 −9.28 ± 11.85 −10.41 ± 8.53 0.241
Un-operated leg −10.90 ± 8.80 −10.60 ± 6.56 −9.53 ± 7.36 0.752
P 0.121 0.395 0.091  
K2 Operated leg −12.57 ± 9.17 −11.40 ± 11.55 −12.99 ± 8.18 0.796
Un-operated leg −12.79 ± 8.73 −13.39 ± 6.50 −12.98 ± 7.61 0.950
P 0.717 0.881 0.525  
KTO Operated leg −8.61 ± 10.15 −5.03 ± 8.37 −5.03 ± 8.43 0.192
  Un-operated leg −11.15 ± 11.04 −6.25 ± 4.20 −7.62 ± 9.26 0.071
P 0.667 0.875 0.175  
K3 Operated leg −13.80 ± 8.94 −11.49 ± 10.92 −11.51 ± 10.93 0.591
Un-operated leg −16.00 ± 10.98 −11.69 ± 6.62 −12.45 ± 10.19 0.156
P 0.667 0.472 0.786  
K4 Operated leg −12.00 ± 6.44 −9.35 ± 12.60 −10.38 ± 9.37 0.553
Un-operated leg −10.39 ± 8.92 −13.06 ± 6.75 −11.58 ± 7.67 0.397
P 0.501 0.026 0.472  
Knee KHS Operated leg −20.10 ± 8.67 −15.58 ± 8.22 −17.79 ± 11.14 0.164
Un-operated leg −17.16 ± 10.69 −16.47 ± 8.32 −19.32 ± 8.01 0.427
P 0.282 0.830 0.494  
K1 Operated leg −17.21 ± 8.07* −11.40 ± 8.14* −12.45 ± 12.18 0.041 (1–2)
Un-operated leg −10.40 ± 11.97 −8.46 ± 8.90 −11.54 ± 8.80 0.464
P 0.017 0.066 0.683  
K2 Operated leg −16.92 ± 8.92* −10.92 ± 7.84* −13.48 ± 11.52 0.046 (1–2)
Un-operated leg −11.27 ± 11.82 −11.59 ± 8.80 −14.76 ± 9.56 0.319
P 0.034 0.694 0.568  
KTO Operated leg −15.80 ± 8.32* −9.27 ± 9.19* −9.99 ± 11.84 0.018 (1–2)
Un-operated leg −10.09 ± 10.66 −8.39 ± 8.26 −11.30 ± 7.37 0.422
P 0.031 0.580 0.528  
K3 Operated leg −17.05 ± 9.33* −8.65 ± 10.55* −9.30 ± 13.30* 0.005 (1–2;1–3)
Un-operated leg −10.92 ± 11.47 −7.43 ± 10.38 −10.08 ± 8.77 0.368
P 0.019 0.483 0.724  
K4 Operated leg −21.18 ± 8.63 −14.88 ± 9.53 −17.91 ± 12.36 0.055
Un-operated leg −16.80 ± 10.65 −16.00 ± 8.58 −19.34 ± 8.45 0.329
P 0.110 0.515 0.532  
  1. *- level of significance (p <0.05); (−) – external rotation; movements of internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) were measured and expressed in degrees (0)