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Table 3 (a) Hazard ratios of the risk factors associated with death from cause-specific hazard analysis based on Cox’s model; (b) sub-distribution hazard ratios of the risk factors associated with the first reoperation, and (c) the medical complication based on Fine and Gray’s (sub-distribution hazard) model from competing risk analysis

From: Outcomes after fixation for undisplaced femoral neck fracture compared to hemiarthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fracture among the elderly

   (a) Death (b) Reoperation (c) Medical complication
   HR 95 % Cl   p-value Sub-HR 95 % Cl   p-value Sub-HR 95 % Cl   p-value
Age Years 1.063 (1.061, 1.065) < .0001 0.990 (0.987, 0.994) < .0001 1.041 (1.037, 1.045) < .0001
Operation Fixation 1(REF.)   1(REF.)   1(REF.)  
  Hemiarthroplasty 1.085 (1.051, 1.121) < .0001 0.738 (0.701, 0.776) < .0001 1.080 (1.019, 1.145) 0.009
Gender Female 1(REF.)   1(REF.)   1(REF.)  
  Male 1.423 (1.378, 1.471) < .0001 1.019 (0.968, 1.073) 0.470 1.749 (1.649, 1.854) < .0001
CCIa 0 1(REF.)   1(REF.)   1(REF.)  
  1 1.529 (1.467, 1.594) < .0001 1.000 (0.940, 1.064) 0.997 4.536 (4.114,5.001) < .0001
  2 2.005 (1.912, 2.102) < .0001 0.927 (0.858, 1.001) 0.053 5.607 (5.065, 6.207) < .0001
  3 2.339 (2.208, 2.477) < .0001 0.875 (0.791, 0.969) 0.010 6.416 (5.739, 7.173) < .0001
  4 3.534 (3.330, 3.750) < .0001 0.913 (0.818, 1.020) 0.107 7.818 (7.000, 8.733) < .0001
  1. aCharlson comorbidity index