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Table 7 Multiple linear regression with pain-related disability (PDI) as the criterion

From: The Psychological Inflexibility in Pain Scale (PIPS) – validation, factor structure and comparison to the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ) and other validated measures in German chronic back pain patients

  M SD B SE B β
Constant 19.00 8.94
Sex 1.43 1.97 .04
Age (years) 51.0 10.5 −0.07 0.08 -.05
Average Pain (0–10) 5.5 2.1 1.93 0.44 .27***
PCS 19.7 12.1 0.50 0.10 .41***
TSK 35.9 7.7 −0.19 0.14 -.10
HADS-A 10.0 3.5 −0.48 0.31 -.11
HADS-D 10.2 3.9 0.41 0.29 .11
PIPS-Avoidance 31.7 11.2 0.31 0.11 .24**
PIPS-Fusion 17.0 3.5 −0.40 0.27 -.09
  1. PCS: Pain Catastrophizing Scale; TSK: Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia; HADS: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (A: Subscale Anxiety; D: Subscale Depression); PIPS: Psychological Inflexibility in Pain Scale (Avoidance: Subscale Avoidance; Fusion: Subscale Fusion without item 3)
  2. Notes: corrected R2 = .428; ** p < .01, *** p < .001