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Table 2 Means and standard deviations for age and pain-related constructs and their correlations with the subscales Avoidance and Fusion (without item 3)

From: The Psychological Inflexibility in Pain Scale (PIPS) – validation, factor structure and comparison to the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ) and other validated measures in German chronic back pain patients

  M SD Correlation with Avoidance Correlation with Fusion
Sex .05 .03
Age 51.01 10.47 –.17* –.10
Pain duration (years) 12.71 10.86 –.21* –.26**
Current paina 4.90 2.41 .24** .06
Average pain last 4 weeksa 5.50 2.07 .22** .17*
TSK 36.04 7.85 .58*** .27***
PCS 19.73 12.06 .56*** .41***
 Rumination 6.63 4.14 .52*** .42***
 Magnification 3.58 2.68 .46*** .42***
 Helplessness 9.52 6.23 .52*** .32***
PDI 34.21 14.65 .46*** .31***
QBPDS 39.97 20.11 .42*** .14
CPAQ total 60.34 20.75 –.81*** –.43***
 Activity Engagement 34.11 12.67 –.69*** –.22**
 Pain Willingness 26.23 10.76 –.74*** –.55***
HADS Anxiety 10.01 3.46 .37*** .22**
HADS Depression 10.22 3.86 .48*** .12
  1. TSK: Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia; PCS: Pain Catastrophizing Scale; PDI: Pain Disability Index; QBPDS: Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale; CPAQ: Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire; HADS: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale
  2. Notes: a Pain rated on a 0–10 numeric rating scale by the person. * p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001