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Table 1 Item means and standard deviations, item difficulties, item-whole correlations with the subscales and Cronbach’s Alpha for the subscales if the item was removed

From: The Psychological Inflexibility in Pain Scale (PIPS) – validation, factor structure and comparison to the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ) and other validated measures in German chronic back pain patients

Itema M SD Difficulty Item-whole correlationb α if removed
Avoidance 32.01 11.35 .57 c .71 c -
 1. I cancel planned activities when I am in pain. 4.18 1.53 .60 .65 .90
 2. I say things like ‘I don’t have any energy’, ‘I am not well enough’. ‘I don’t have time’, ‘I don’t dare’, ‘I have too much pain’, ‘I feel bad’, or ‘I don’t feel like it’. 4.40 1.69 .63 .61 .91
 4. Because of my pain, I no longer plan for the future. 3.30 1.99 .47 .70 .90
 5. I avoid doing things when there is a risk it will hurt or make things worse. 4.28 1.78 .61 .69 .90
 7. I don’t do things that are important to me to avoid pain. 3.93 1.84 .56 .70 .90
 8. I postpone things because of my pain. 4.43 1.65 .63 .84 .89
 10. It’s not me that controls my life, it’s may pain. 3.68 2.04 .53 .72 .90
 11. I avoid planning activities because of my pain. 3.82 1.88 .55 .80 .89
Fusion 20.84 6.20 .74 b .20 b -
 3. I need to understand what is wrong in order to move on. 3.83 4.88 .55 .07 .63
 6. It is important to understand what causes my pain. 5.71 1.44 .82 .33 .11
 9. I would do almost anything to get rid of my pain. 5.85 1.51 .84 .18 .20
 12. It is important that I learn to control my pain. 5.45 1.63 .78 .23 .16
  1. Notes: a English translation of the items from [9]; the German translations of the items are listed in the appendix b Item-whole correlations with the respective subscales. c Values in these rows denote the means for the subscale. Cronbach’s Alpha for the subscales is α = .91 for Avoidance and α = .26 for Fusion