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Table 2 Associations between subgroups and outcomes

From: In a secondary care setting, differences between neck pain subgroups classified using the Quebec task force classification system were typically small – a longitudinal study

Outcome Pain intensity*,1 Activity limitation*,2
  (0 to 10 scale) (0 to 100 scale)
  Beta-coefficients Beta-coefficients
  (95%CI) (95%CI)
Subgroup effect at baseline   
Local NP [reference]   
NP pain above the elbow .5 (−.03 – 1.0) 3.1 (.9 - 5.3)
NP + pain below the elbow 1.0 (.5 - 1.5) 3.7 (1.6 - 5.8)
NP + NRI 1.3 (.8 - 1.7) 5.5 (3.5 - 7.4)
  p < .001 p < .001
Time   
3 months - .6 (−1.2 - .06) −1.9 (−3.7 - .2)
6 months - .7 (−1.4 - .06) −3.4 (−5.1 - -1.1)
12 months −1.1 (−1.7 - -.5) −3.3 (−5.2 - -1.4)
  p < .001 p < .001
Subgroup X time   
3-months   
Local NP [reference]   
NP + pain above the elbow -.3 (−1.1 - .5) -.5 (−3.0 - 1.9)
NP + pain below the elbow -.3 (−1.1 - .4) -.1 (−2.8 - 2.0)
NP + NRI -.4(−1.0 - .4) -.8 (−3.2 - 1.2)
  p = .8 p = .8
6-months   
Local NP [reference]   
NP + pain above the elbow .4 (−.4 - 1.3) .8 (−1.7 - 3.4)
NP + pain below the elbow -.4 (−1.2 - .4) -.2 (−2.6 – 2.2)
NP + NRI -.8 (−1.5 - .03) −1.1 (−3.3 - .1.1)
  p < .001 p = .2
12-months   
Local NP [reference]   
NP + pain above the elbow .5 (−.3 - 1.2) .4 (−2.0 - 2.7)
NP + pain below the elbow -.1 (−.8 - .6) .7 (−1.5 - 2.9)
NP + NRI -.2 (−.9 - .4) -.6 (−2.7 - 1.5)
  p = .09 p = .3
  1. Longitudinal models used for pain intensity and activity limitation
  2. 1Higher of either average neck pain or average arm pain (n = 1693, average number of observations = 1.6)
  3. 2 N = 1832, average number of observations = 1.7
  4. ‘Reference’ indicates the classification category used as the reference in the regression model