Skip to main content

Table 1 Studies Assessing Glenoid Bone Loss with Radiography

From: Imaging methods for quantifying glenoid and Hill-Sachs bone loss in traumatic instability of the shoulder: a scoping review

Study Modality Details Quantification Technique Findings
Charousset et al. [47]: Retrospective case series Radiography; 2DCT 31 patients True AP radiography: Loss of sclerotic line (ICC):
Assessment: Loss of sclerotic line Inter-observer 0.44-0.47
True AP view; 2DCT arthrogram; 3 observers measured twice CT: Intra-observer 0.66-0.93
Outcome: Griffith Index (Fig. 1); best-fit circle width loss (Fig. 10) Griffiths Index (ICC):
Reliability Inter-observer 0.68-0.71
   Intra-observer 0.78-0.90
   Best-fit circle width loss (ICC):
   Inter-observer 0.74
   Intra-observer 0.90-0.95
Itoi et al. [18]: Cadaveric study Radiography; 2DCT 12 cadavers Radiography: 21 % glenoid length defect:
Assessment: West Point & axillary views 18.6 % on West Point view 2.3 % on axillary view
45 ° angle defects created at 0, 9, 21, 34, & 46 % of glenoid length; radiography at each cut; 1 observer measured twice CT: 50 % loss of width on CT
Outcome: Width of the inferior ¼ of the glenoid measured in a single axial slice  
Correlation, reliability   Correlation coefficients:
   0.905-0.993
   Coefficients of variance:
   0.5-3.6 %
Jankauskas et al. [45]: Retrospective case–control study Radiography; 2DCT 86 patients Superoinferior length of bone defect Detecting bone lesion:
Assessment:   Sensitivity 54-65 %
True AP radiography; 2 observers on radiography; 1 observer on CT   Specificity 100 %
Outcome:   Inter-rater reliability: kappa = 0.88
Reliability; sensitivity; specificity   Radiography vs. CT:
   9 shoulders with mean 8.2 ± 3.5 mm glenoid bone loss on CT were missed on radiography
Sommaire et al. [46]: Retrospective cohort study Radiography; 2DCT 77 patients Radiography: Radiographic D1/D2 ratio (p = 0.003):
Assessment: Bernageau view of both shoulders to calculate D1/D2 ratio (Fig. 4) 4.2 % patients without recurrence
Pre-operative Bernageau radiographs & 2DCT of unilateral shoulder before arthroscopic Bankart repair; 1 observer measured once CT:  
Outcome: Gerber‘s X index (Fig. 7) 5.1 % in patients with recurrence
   CT:
   Recurrence Rate (p = 0.004):
   Gerber X index < 40 % =20 %
Need for revision correlated with imaging   Gerber X Index >40 % =12.7 %
   Note: Reliability not assessed
Murachovsky et al. [43]: Prospective case–control study Radiography; 3DCT 10 patients; 50 healthy subjects Radiography: Reliability:
Assessment: Bernageau view (D1/D2) ratio (Fig. 4) Intra-observer ICC 0.897-0.965
Bilateral radiography (all subjects) & CT (instability subjects); 1 radiologist measured CT; 3 orthopaedic surgeons measured 3 times each 3DCT: Inter-observer ICC 0.76-0.81
Outcome: Glenoid AP width measured bilaterally to calculate % bone loss Difference between radiography & CT non-significant (2.28 %)
Reliability   
  1. List of Abbreviations: ICC intraclass correlation coefficient; PE percent error