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Table 3 Secondary outcomes. Mean (sd) scores and percentage (99 % CI) for secondary outcome measures at each follow up. Between group differences in estimated mean score using linear generalized estimating equations (GEE) regression model adjusted for significant covariates; between groups estimated odds ratio (OR) for no pain on two isometric movements using logistic GEE regression model adjusted for significant covariates; 99 % confidence intervals

From: Corticosteroid or placebo injection combined with deep transverse friction massage, Mills manipulation, stretching and eccentric exercise for acute lateral epicondylitis: a randomised, controlled trial

Mean scores (sd) for each intervention Difference in estimated mean score (99 % CI) between groups
Outcome measure Follow up Control Placebo injection with physiotherapy Corticosteroid injection (CI) with physiotherapy Placebo injection with physiotherapy versus control P CI with physiotherapy versus control P CI with physiotherapy versus placebo injection with physiotherapy P
  Negative value favours first treatment in comparison
Pain Score on VAS (0: no pain, 100: worst pain)  
  6 weeks 44 (25) 45 (23) 29 (25) −3.7 (−12.4 to 5.0) 0.27 −3.2 (−12.0 to 5.6) 0.35 0.53 (−8.4 to 9.4) 0.88
  12 weeks 33 (26) 33 (26) 41 (26) −3.7 (−12.5 to 5.1) 0.28 0.2 (−8.5 to 8.9) 0.95 3.9 (−4.9 to 12.7) 0.25
  26 weeks 19 (22) 21 (22) 38 (28) −3.6 (−12.4 to 5.2) 0.29 1.8 (−7.0 to 10.6) 0.60 5.4 (−3.6 to 14.4) 0.12
  52 weeks 13 (19) 9 (11) 19 (23) −6.0 (−14.9 to 2.9) 0.09 −2.9 (−11.8 to 6.0) 0.40 3.0 (−6.0 to 12.0) 0.38
Affected Function on VAS (0: not affected, 100: very much affected)       
  6 weeks 38(26) 45 (24) 25 (23) 8.3 (−1.8 to 18.4) 0.04 7.5 (−2.8 to 17.8) 0.06 −0.8 (−11.2 to 9.6) 0.85
  12 weeks 34 (28) 32 (25) 37 (29) −1.2 (−11.5 to 9.0) 0.76 3.4 (−6.8 to 13.5) 0.40 4.6 (−5.7 to 14.9) 0.25
  26 weeks 16 (20) 17 (22) 28 (25) 0.29 (−10.0 to 10.6) 0.94 4.4 (−5.9 to 14.7) 0.27 4.1 (−6.4 to 14.6) 0.31
  52 weeks 10 (17) 9 (15) 16 (22) 0.24 (−10.2 to 10.7) 0.95 6.0 (−4.4 to 16.4) 0.14 5.8 (−4.7 to 16.2) 0.16
Overall Complaints on VAS (0: no complaints, 100: very large complaints)
  6 weeks 51 (28) 50 (26) 32 (26) −1.5 (−9.2 to 6.2) 0.62 −6.9 (−14.7 to 0.9) 0.02 −5.4 (−13.3 to 2.4) 0.08
  12 weeks 36 (27) 35 (28) 43 (30) 1.6 (−6.1 to 9.4) 0.59 −2.2 (−9.9 to 5.5) 0.47 −3.8 (−11.6 to 3.9) 0.21
  26 weeks 18 (20) 19 (23) 36 (26) 1.9 (−5.9 to 9.7) 0.52 −0.5 (−8.3 to 7.3) 0.86 −2.5 (−10.4 to 5.5) 0.42  
  52 weeks 12 (19) 9 (13) 20 (24) 2.5 (−5.4 to 10.3) 0.42 −1.0 (−8.9 to 6.9) 0.74 −3.5 (−11.4 to 4.5) 0.26
  Positive value favours first treatment in comparison
Pain‐free grip strength ratio (x 100)+  
  6 weeks 57 (32) 50 (29) 58 (35) 6.1 (−15.9 to 28.1) 0.47 1.8 (−20.6 to 24.22) 0.84 −4.3 (−26.9 to 18.2) 0.62
  12 weeks 63 (36) 55 (25) 64 (43) 0.6 (−21.9 to 23.2) 0.94 −3.4 (−25.7 to 18.9) 0.70 −4.0 (−26.4 to 18.4) 0.65
  26 weeks 74 (37) 76 (27) 82 (48) 10.0 (−12.9 to 32.8) 0.26 3.4 (−19.4 to 26.2) 0.70 −6.6 (−29.8 to 16.6) 0.47
  52 weeks 91 (23) 90 (23) 100 (33) 11.8 (−11.7 to 35.4) 0.24 7.9 (−15.5 to 31.2) 0.39 −4.0 (−28.3 to 19.3) 0.66
Maximum grip strength ratio (x 100)+  
  6 weeks 74 (27) 80 (25) 87 (26) 1.7 (−14.6 to 18.0) 0.79 6.8 (−9.8 to 23.4) 0.29 5.1 (−11.6 to 21.8) 0.43
  12 weeks 89 (28) 88 (23) 83 (29) −7.2 (−23.7 to 9.3) 0.26 −3.7 (−20.2 to 12.7) 0.57 3.6 (−13.0 to 20.1) 0.58
  26 weeks 99 (19) 99 (20) 89 (27) −4.5 (−21.0 to 12.0) 0.48 −2.7 (−19.3 to 13.9) 0.67 1.8 (−15.1 to 18.6) 0.79
  52 weeks 104 (15) 102 (17) 96 (19) −7.6 (−24.3 to 9.2) 0.25 −5.0 (−21.7 to 11.7) 0.44 2.6 (−14.3 to 19.4) 0.70
  Negative value favours first treatment in comparison
Pain Free Function Index (0–8, 0: full function, 8: no function)  
  6 weeks 4.82 (2.16) 4.40 (2.01) 2.78 (2.22) −0.13 (−1.20 to 0.94) 0.76 −0.52 (−1.60 to 0.57) 0.22 −0.39 (−1.49 to 0.71) 0.36
  12 weeks 3.37 (2.36) 3.62 (2.43) 3.42 (2.63) 0.38 (−0.70 to 1.46) 0.36 −0.15 (−1.22 to 0.92) 0.72 −0.54 (−1.62 to 0.55) 0.20
  26 weeks 2.00 (2.25) 1.83 (2.08) 2.97 (2.53) −0.04 (−1.12 to 1.05) 0.93 0.46 (−0.63 to 1.55) 0.27 0.50 (−0.61 to 1.60) 0.24
  52 weeks 1.40 (1.90) 1.03 (1.67) 1.64 (2.04) −0.18 (−1.28 to 0.92) 0.67 0.01 (−1.08 to 1.11) 0.98 0.20 (−0.91 to 1.30) 0.65
Percentage (99 % CI) for each intervention Estimated Odds Ratio (99 % CI) between groups
  OR > 1 favours first treatment in comparison
No pain on three point Likert scale on dorsiflexion of wrist++  
  6 weeks 8 (−1 to 18) 3 (−3 to 10) 36 (20 to 52) 0.38 (0.04 to 3.96) 0.29 3.47 (0.71 to 17.1) 0.04 9.2 (1.09 to 77.74)* <0.01
  12 weeks 17 (4 to 29) 12 (1 to 23) 22 (8 to 36) 1.07 (0.06 to 18.18) 0.95 0.66 (0.07 to 5.82) 0.63 0.62 (0.04 to 9.01) 0.65
  26 weeks 38 (22 to 54) 29 (14 to 45) 19 (6 to 32) 1.76 (0.13 to 24.65) 0.58 0.20 (0.02 to 1.63) 0.048 0.11 (0.01 to 1.45) 0.03
  52 weeks 50 (33 to 67) 60 (4 to 77) 36 (20 to 52) 3.88 (0.29 to 53.02) 0.18 0.23 (0.03 to 1.71) 0.06 0.06 (0.01 to 0.69)* <0.01
No pain on three point Likert scale on isometric extension of third finger++  
  6 weeks 17 (4 to 29) 16 (3 to 28) 44 (27 to 61) 0.90 (0.22 to 3.70) 0.84 2.95 (0.81 to 10.72) 0.03 3.29 (0.88 to 12.27) 0.02
  12 weeks 22 (8 to 35) 24 (10 to 39) 36 (20 to 52) 1.21 (0.18 to 8.03) 0.80 1.14 (0.19 to 6.97) 0.86 0.94 (0.15 to 5.87) 0.93
  26 weeks 58 (42 to 75) 53 (37 to 70) 31 (15 to 46) 1.07 (0.17 to 6.61) 0.93 0.17 (0.03 to 0.96)* <0.01 0.16 (0.03 to 0.93)* <0.01
  52 weeks 63 (47 to 79) 76 (61 to 90) 53 (36 to 69) 2.04 (0.30 to 13.96) 0.34 0.33 (0.06 to 1.98) 0.11 0.16 (0.03 to 1.06) 0.012
  1. +: ratio affected/unaffected arm
  2. ++: no pain, some pain, strong pain
  3. *: p < 0.01