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Table 1 Baseline characteristics. Baseline characteristics of participants according to treatment groups and total study population. Values are numbers (percentages) unless otherwise stated

From: Corticosteroid or placebo injection combined with deep transverse friction massage, Mills manipulation, stretching and eccentric exercise for acute lateral epicondylitis: a randomised, controlled trial

   Control Placebo injection with physiotherapy Corticosteroid injection with physiotherapy Total
   (n = 60) (n = 58) (n = 59) (N = 177)
Age years, mean (SD) 44.0 (9.7) 48.8 (9.4) 47.9 (9.6) 46.9 (9.7)
Women   25 (42) 20 (35) 26 (44) 71 (40)
Higher education*   15 (25) 24 (41) 13 (22) 52 (29)
Exercises regularly   30 (50) 32 (55) 24 (41) 86 (49)
Paid work   53 (88) 49 (85) 52 (88) 154 (87)
Paid work   53 (88) 49 (85) 52 (88) 154 (87)
Manual labor   36 (60) 29 (50) 35 (59) 100 (57)
On paid sick-leave now**   14 (26) 14 (29) 23 (44) 51 (33)
Duration of complaints (weeks, median (IQR)) 7.5 (4‐10) 8 (4‐10) 6 (4‐10) 8 (4‐10)
Dominant elbow affected   41 (68) 42 (72) 43 (73) 126 (71)
Pain every day past week   58 (97) 55 (95) 57 (97) 170 (96)
Use of analgesics past week   15 (25) 15 (26) 25 (42) 55 (31)
Acute start of symptoms   42 (70) 25 (43) 27 (46) 94 (53)
Similar complaints earlier ++   16 (27) 9 (16) 16 (27) 41 (23)
Presumed cause      
 overuse, usual activitities   34 (57) 38 (66) 38 (64) 110 (62)
 overuse, unusual activities   25 (42) 19 (33) 21 (36) 65 (37)
Patient’s preference for treatment      
 Physiotherapy   17 (28) 26 (45) 24 (41) 67 (38)
 Injections   15 (25) 6 (10) 19 (32) 40 (23)
 Wait and see   6 (10) 3 (5) 2 (3) 11 (6)
 No preference   22 (37) 22 (38) 14 (24) 58 (33)
Pain Score on VAS (0‐100 mm) mean (sd) 48 (21.5) 53 (19.3) 56 (19.7) 52 (20.4)
Affected Function on VAS (0: not affected, 100: very much affected) mean (sd) 53 (21.8) 54 (22.5) 53 (21.7) 53 (21.9)
Overall Complaints on VAS (0: no complaints, 100: very large complaints) mean (sd) 62 (20.5) 62 (19.3) 69 (17.1) 64 (19.2)
Pain-free grip strength ratio*** mean (sd) 35 (27) 38 (27) 37 (27) 36 (27)
Maximum grip strength ratio*** mean (sd) 72 (29) 77 (42) 70 (28) 73 (34)
Pain Free Function Index**** mean (sd) 5.4 (1.6) 5.3 (1.8) 5.5 (1.7) 5.4 (1.7)
Pain-free isometric dorsiflexion of wrist+   0/60 (0) 0/58 (0) 2/59 (3) 2/177 (3)
Pain-free isometric extension of third finger+   8/59 (14) 2/58 (3) 4/59 (7) 14/176 (8)
  1. *: university/college
  2. **: percentage of those with paid work
  3. ***: ratio affected/unaffected arm (x 100)
  4. ****: 0: full function, 8: no function
  5. +: score 1 on 3 point Likert scale (1-no pain, 2-some pain, 3‐strong pain)
  6. ++: at least 3 months prior to current episode