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Table 2 Linear regression analysis on the association of leg-length discrepancy (LLD) of 6 mm or more and other explanatory variables with intensity of low back pain (LBP) during the past week and past 3 months

From: Leg-length discrepancy is associated with low back pain among those who must stand while working

  Intensity of LBP in the past weeka Intensity of LBP in the past 3 monthsa
Unadjusted estimate (95% CI) Adjustedbestimate (95% CI) Unadjusted estimate (95% CI) Adjustedbestimate (95% CI)
LLD > 5 mm
No 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Yes 0.60 (0.37-0.83)*** 0.53 (0.32-0.74)*** 0.54 (0.33-0.76)*** 0.49 (0.29-0.69)***
Depressive feelings c   0.34 (0.21-0.46)***   0.34 (0.22-0.46)***
Gender
Male   0.00   0.00
Female   0.23 (−0.02-0.48)   0.31 (0.07-0.54 )*
Smoking
No   0.00   0.00
Yes   0.14 (−0.11-0.38)   0.08 (−0.16-0.31)
Age d   −0.01 (−0.02-0.00)   −0.01 (−0.02-0.01)
Working position e
Sitting   0.00   0.00
Standing   0.05 (−0.23-0.33)   0.24 (−0.05-0.48)
  1. aPain intensity assessed using a 10-cm Visual Analogue Scale. Responses are logarithmized, therefore the interpretation of the estimates differs from the analysis using original scaling. Estimated effect of LLD > 5 mm, 0.53, means that mean intensity of pain is approximately 53% greater compared to LLD ≤ 5 mml; bAdjusted for all variables in the table; cDepressive feelings=logarithmized total score from the PHQ-9 questionnaire; dAge in years; eSitting=customary workers, standing=meat cutters; *p < 0.05, ***p < 0.001.