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Table 3 Diagnostic validity of the “interspinous gap change” during lumbar flexion-extension motion for the detection of lumbar instability

From: New physical examination tests for lumbar spondylolisthesis and instability: low midline sill sign and interspinous gap change during lumbar flexion-extension motion

   Radiographic lumbar instability
   Positive Negative
Interspinous gap change Positive 37 11
Negative    8 17
  1. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the test were 82.2%, 60.7%, 77.1%, and 68.0%, respectively.